Technology brought the study of marine biology to new heights after the HMS Challenger expedition. William Beebe and Otis Barton descended 923m/3,028ft. off the coast of Bermuda in a bathysphere, which was designed and funded by Barton. The depth record was not broken until 1948, when Barton made a bathysphere dive to 1,372m/4,500ft. During the interim, Beebe was able to observe marine life in its natural environment rather than in a specimen jar. Although he was criticized for never publishing his discoveries in professional journals, his vivid descriptions of the bathysphere dives in the books he published inspired many oceanographers and marine biologists.