Australia and Oceania

Events

Tahitians Discover New Zealand

800 AD

Tahitians colonize New Zealand, the last great island region in the Pacific to be reached by human beings.

Settlement of New Zealand and Rekohu (Chatham Islands)

900 AD - 1200 AD

Tahitian immigrants, now known as Maori islanders, settle in New Zealand. The climate is too cool to grow Tahitian crops, but there is a lot of big slow wildlife, so the Maori become hunter gatherers.

The Moa, a large flightless bird was driven to extinction by 1300.

Tonga Empire

950 AD - 1500 AD

The Tongan people become free of Fiji rule under the leadership of Aho’eitu. Aho’eitu is the founder of the Tonga Empire. Under his leadership, the Tongan empire expands quickly and aggressively, collecting taxes over much of Polynesia.

Easter Island Statues Built

1000 AD - 1650 AD

The Easter Island statues or Moai are carved and erected sometime around 1000 AD. These are competitively built, with larger statues giving greater status to tribal leaders. The statues represent ancestral chiefs who were believed to be directly from the gods and whose supernatural powers could be harnessed for the benefit of humanity. The Easter Island statues appear to be only heads, because they were built on the side of a volcano and their bodies were buried in soil.

Sweet Potatoes Arrive in Polynesia from South America

1100 AD

Because the Sweet Potato is high in calories, it led to a rise in farming culture.
Sweet potato remains in Polynesia have been carbon dated to 1100 AD. They most likely came from the coast of South America. This suggests that Polynesians traveled to South America as early as 1100 AD.
http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2013/01/22/169980441/how-the-sweet-potato-crossed-the-pacific-before-columbus

Polynesians created double hulled canoes that could hold 80 people and spend months at sea.

Saudeleur Dynasty Rules Micronesian Island Pohnpei and Constructs the City of Nan Madol

1200 AD - 1600 AD

Nan Madol is a giant stone city that was home to the nobility of Pohnpei. The Saudeleur dynasty used the city to monitor and control their political rivals.

Hawaii Colonized by Tahitians

1200 AD

Stratified Society Emerges in Vanuatu

1200

Legendary Chief Roy Mata unites disparate tribes and changes Vanuatu culture.
His elaborate grave contained the bodies of 25 local chiefs who were buried alive.
https://www.britannica.com/place/Vanuatu#ref513800

Farming in Kona Fields Modernizes Hawaiian Society

1300 AD

A centralized government is necessary to organize large scale farming. Farming leads to economic growth which creates a class structure.

Birdman Religion

1450 AD - 1860 AD

As ecological resources disappeared, Polynesians became more secular and warlike. The birdman religion eventually replaced early Moai traditions such as statue building, The birdman religion was suppressed by Christian missionaries in the 1860s.
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/08/oc.html

The Religion is known for their traditional egg hunting competition. Islanders swam to the island of Motu Nui and competed to find the first egg of the season and bring it back to the main island of Orongo.

Motu Nui seen from the Orongo

Sweet Potatoes Introduced to New Guinea Leads to Rapid Population Growth

1500

Ferdinand Magellan reaches Guam

1521

Ferdinand Magellan crosses the Pacific and reaches Guam.

First Map of Australia

1527

Robert Thorne draws first map of Australia at the behest of King Henry VIII

Zoomorphic Structure found in Papua New Guinea

1600 AD

This figure possibly depicts an echidna, an egg-laying mammal native to New Guinea and Australia. Carbon dates back to 1500 BC.

Discovery of Tasmania

1642 - 1643

Abel Tasman sailed south of Australia and encountered Tasmania

Discoveries in Oceania

1699 - 1700

William Dampier explores parts of Australia, Southeast Asian islands, and the Bismarck Archipelago

British Possession of Eastern Australia

1770

Captain James Cook charts the east coast of Australia onboard HM Endeavor, claims it as British possession and names it "New South Wales"

Transportation of convicts to Australia

Approx. 1780 - Approx. 1840

From around 1780 to 1840, the British transported about 160,000 prisoners to Australia

Settlement at Sydney

1788

British Naval Captain Arthur Philip founds a settlement at Sydney with a fleet of 11 ships carrying almost 800 convicts

Aboriginal Population reaches several hundred thousand

1788

Origin of aborigines is believed to be from Southeast Asia 40,000-70,000 years ago.

Matthew Flinders Circumnavigated Australia

1801 - 1803

Mathew Flinders was a very successful navigator and cartographer in his age. He was asked by the British government to completely map the coastline of Australia. At the time, Western Australia was called New Holland and Matthew Flinders was the one that suggested the name of Australia.

Settlement in Tasmania

1804

City of Hobart on southern coast
"Australia and Oceania - Oxford Reference." Oxford Reference - Answers with Authority. N.p., 24 Sept. 2013. Web. 06 Mar. 2017

Van Diemen's Land (modern day Tasmania) became a penal settlement

1825

Modern day Tasmania becomes a penal settlement

Settlement of Perth

1829

James Stirling travels to western Australia
"Australia and Oceania - Oxford Reference." Oxford Reference - Answers with Authority. N.p., 24 Sept. 2013. Web. 06 Mar. 2017

Western Australia established as a settlement

1830

Founded by free immigrants and willingly added convicts in 1850
Kästle, Klaus. "___ History of Australia." History of Australia - Nations Online Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2017.

Forced Movement of Aborigines

1831

British moves the last Aborigines of Tasmania to a small island where they are to die out
"Australia and Oceania - Oxford Reference." Oxford Reference - Answers with Authority. N.p., 24 Sept. 2013. Web. 06 Mar. 2017

Foundation of Adelaide, start of emigration

1836

A site was chosen for Adelaide, the first colony that would not be a penal colony. Young married couples would travel there freely.
"Australia and Oceania - Oxford Reference." Oxford Reference - Answers with Authority. N.p., 24 Sept. 2013. Web. 06 Mar. 2017

Penal Colony officially no longer a major settlement (New South Wales)

1840

New South Wales was no longer an official penal colony
Kästle, Klaus. "___ History of Australia." History of Australia - Nations Online Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2017.

Australian Gold Rush begins at Ballarat

1851

Australian Gold Rush

1851 - 1855

During the Australian gold rushes, significant numbers of workers, both from other areas within Australia and from overseas relocated to areas in which gold had been discovered. he first gold rush in Australia began. in May 1851 after prospector Edward Hargraves claimed to have discovered payable gold near Orange, at a site he called Ophir. Australian gold rushes changed the convict colonies into more progressive cities with the influx of free emigrants. These hopefuls, termed diggers, brought new skills and professions, contributing to a burgeoning economy. The mateship that evolved between these diggers and their collective resistance to authority led to the emergence of a unique national identity.

Penal Colony no longer a major settlement (Tasmania)

1856

16 years after New South Wales was no longer recognized as an official penal colony, Van Diemens Land, which is now known as Tasmania was also no longer recognized.
Kästle, Klaus. "___ History of Australia." History of Australia - Nations Online Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2017.

Chinese Immigrations to Australia

1861

Victims of racial attacks
"Australia and Oceania - Oxford Reference." Oxford Reference - Answers with Authority. N.p., 24 Sept. 2013. Web. 06 Mar. 2017

1901

1901

January 1st Australia became its own nation

The White Australia Policy

1901

The ‘White Australia Policy’ and also better known as the Immigration Restriction Act 1901, was introduced in the 1900s preventing people of non- European descent from migrating to Australia

Immigration Restriction Act 1901

1901

An Act of the Parliament of Australia which limited immigration to Australia and formed the basis of the White Australia policy which sought to exclude all non-Europeans from Australia. The law granted immigration officers a wide degree of discretion to prevent individuals from entering Australia. The Act prohibited various classes of people from immigrating and provided for illegal immigrants to be depor

Australia Founded as a Nation

January 1, 1901

Women's Suffrage In Australia

1902

In 1902, the newly established Australian Parliament passed the Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902, which set a uniform law enabling women to vote at federal elections and to stand for the federal Parliament
https://static1.squarespace.com/static/507b67dce4b0954f51d4823e/t/555d3e0be4b09cf7a6cb5840/1432174093017/

New Zealand becomes Sovereign

1907

New Zealand becomes independent as a self governing dominion (sovereignty)

Australia's Population Reaches 4,455,00

January 1, 1911

World War I

1914 - 1918

This was the outbreak of World War 1. Four days after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia and Germany declared war on each other the same day. France than ordered a general mobilization. The so-called “Great War” that resulted in the deaths of some 20 million soldiers and civilians and the physical devastation of much of the European continent.

The Great Depression

1929 - 1939

In 1929 the Great Depression began with the Wall Street Crash of October, 1929
Just as other nations suffered so did Australia-- suffering from years of high unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation, plunging incomes, and lost opportunities for economic growth and personal advancement

Immigrant clashes

1934

Australia gov states, The Great Depression hardened community attitudes against immigrants. Racism surfaced under the guise of protecting Australian jobs and businesses. Anti-foreigner riots occurred on the Kalgoorlie goldfields in 1934. These were followed by strikes demanding preferential employment for Australian-born workers. Immigrants in the 1920s and 30s maintained contact, where possible, with families and homelands. This was especially important when many were made to feel unwelcome.

War declared

1941

The US declares war on Japan. Australia turns to the US for help in its defence after the Japanese take Singapore. Australia allows the US to base its supreme command for the Pacific war on its territory.

Australian Scheme

1948

Australia begins a scheme for immigration from Europe. Over the next 30 years, more than two million people arrive, about one-third of them from Britain, and hundreds of thousands from Italy, Greece and Germany.

1967 Referendum

1967

The 1967 Referendum proposed to include Aboriginal people in the census.
The 1967 Referendum proposed to allow the Commonwealth government to make laws for Aboriginal people.

1971

1971

Neville Bonner an Australian politician becomes the first Aboriginal to be a Member of Parliament.

New Immigration laws

1975

people from other countries were encouraged to come to Australia. Migrants have come from Asia, the Middle East and South America as well as Europe

1981

1981

Asian Immigration increases

More migration

1982

In 1982, the Vietnamese Government agreed to let refugees leave Vietnam without persecution, freeing people to come to Australia to be with their families who had fled earlier. By 1985, 70,000 refugees from Southeast Asia, mostly Vietnam, had settled in Australia

Classes Of Immigration

2000

There are a number of different types of Australian immigration, classed under different categories of visa.
Employment visas - Australian working visas are most commonly granted to highly skilled workers. Candidates are assessed against a points-based system, with points allocated for certain standards of education. These visas are often sponsored by individual States, which recruit workers according to specific needs. Visas may also be granted to applicants sponsored by an Australian business. The most popular form of sponsored working visa is the 457 visa.
Student visas - The Australian Government actively encourages foreign students to study in Australia. There are a number of categories of student visa, most of which require a confirmed offer from an educational institution.
Family visas - Visas are often granted on the basis of family ties in Australia. There are a number of different types of Australian family visas, including Contributory Parent visas and Spouse visas.
Investor visas - Foreign investors could invest the business or fund in Australia to acquire the Permanent Residential of Australia, after 4 years (including the year which acquire the visa), they need to take the exam and make a declaration in order to be a citizen of Australia