The Liao dynasty was also known as the Khitan Empire and was characterized by tension between Chinese and Khitan social and political practices. At its largest, it spanned Mongolia, northern Korea, northern China, and eastern Russian,
Wanyan Aguda rebels against Khitan Empire
Aguda's rebellion resulted in the end of the Liao dynasty. He then founded the Jurchen Jin empire.
1125 - 1234
Initially, the Jin and Song allied against the Liao in return for the return of Song territory in northern China. They succeeded but the Jin were reluctant to cede land which lead to the Jin-Song war.
Kitan rule survives the fall of the Liao Dynasty
Wanyan Wuqimai succeeds his brother, Wanyan Aguda
Jin retains Song territory in northern China
Yelü Dashi’s rule extended
Dashi was a commander of the Khitan army who expanded the Liao dynasty to the Altai Mountains and Oxus river. He later founded the Qara Khitai (Western Liao Dynasty).
Genghis Khan Lifespan
Approx. 1162 - 1227
Genghis Khan was born as Temujin. He founded the Mongol Empire which then became the largest contiguous empire.
Genghis Khan becomes Khan of Khamag Mongol
After becoming the Khan, he began to expand his empire and conquering most of Eurasia. His conquest was brutal and involved the massacre of many subjugated people.
The Mongol Empire
1206 - 1368
Genghis Khan dies
Following his death, he divided his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons.
Rule of Ogedei Khan
1227 - 1241
Ogedei was Genghis Khan's successor. His first actions were to reestablish Mongol authority in Manchuria and to conquer Kipchak steppes. He was responsible for the collapse of the Jin dynasty, personally leading the attack.
Collapse of the Jin Empire
The Mongol Empire under Ogedei attacked the Jin Empire and lead to its collapse.
Kublai Khan becomes 5th Khagan
Toluid Civil War begins resulting in division of the Mongol Empire
1267 - 1368
Kaidu- Kublai war begins; Mongol empire in 4 parts
Kublai Khan proclaims the founding of the Yuan Dynasty with himself as first emperor
Kublai Khan dies; Temur Khan becomes 6th Khagan
Nominal supremacy of Yuan Dynasty
Kulug Khan becomes 7th Khagan
Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan becomes 8th Khagan
Gegeen Khan becomes 9th Khagan
Prevalence of Ming Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty is pushed to Northern Mongolia
Golden Horde Defeated
Northern Yuan Dynasty unifies central and east Mongolia
The Qing Conquers Southern Mongolia creating Inner Mongolia
The Manchu occupation of China that gave way to the establishment of Qing dynastic, created inner Mongolia which at the time held the semi-nomads of Mongolia.
The Qing empire offers protection to the northern Mongols, creating Outer Mongolia.
The Qing put in place a system of government where the people of Mongolia did all of the work for their government giving the a measure of freedom while still being able to make rules from afar. This work well because the Mongolians knew what needed to be done for their country and had the drive to make it happen.
The Treaty of Kyakhta fixes the western border between the Russian and Manchu empires, confirming Qing dominion over Mongolia and Tuva