The Liao dynasty was also known as the Khitan Empire and was characterized by tension between Chinese and Khitan social and political practices. At its largest, it spanned Mongolia, northern Korea, northern China, and eastern Russian,
Wanyan Aguda rebels against Khitan Empire
Aguda's rebellion resulted in the end of the Liao dynasty. He then founded the Jurchen Jin empire.
1125 - 1234
Initially, the Jin and Song allied against the Liao in return for the return of Song territory in northern China. They succeeded but the Jin were reluctant to cede land which lead to the Jin-Song war.
Kitan rule survives the fall of the Liao Dynasty
Wanyan Wuqimai succeeds his brother, Wanyan Aguda
Jin retains Song territory in northern China
Yelü Dashi’s rule extended
Dashi was a commander of the Khitan army who expanded the Liao dynasty to the Altai Mountains and Oxus river. He later founded the Qara Khitai (Western Liao Dynasty).
Genghis Khan Lifespan
Approx. 1162 - 1227
Genghis Khan was born as Temujin. He founded the Mongol Empire which then became the largest contiguous empire.
Genghis Khan becomes Khan of Khamag Mongol
After becoming the Khan, he began to expand his empire and conquering most of Eurasia. His conquest was brutal and involved the massacre of many subjugated people.
The Mongol Empire
1206 - 1368
Genghis Khan dies
Following his death, he divided his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons.
Rule of Ogedei Khan
1227 - 1241
Ogedei was Genghis Khan's successor. His first actions were to reestablish Mongol authority in Manchuria and to conquer Kipchak steppes. He was responsible for the collapse of the Jin dynasty, personally leading the attack.
Collapse of the Jin Empire
The Mongol Empire under Ogedei attacked the Jin Empire and lead to its collapse.
Kublai Khan becomes 5th Khagan
Toluid Civil War begins resulting in division of the Mongol Empire
1267 - 1368
Kaidu- Kublai war begins; Mongol empire in 4 parts
Kublai Khan proclaims the founding of the Yuan Dynasty with himself as first emperor
Kublai Khan dies; Temur Khan becomes 6th Khagan
Nominal supremacy of Yuan Dynasty
Kulug Khan becomes 7th Khagan
Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan becomes 8th Khagan
Gegeen Khan becomes 9th Khagan
Prevalence of Ming Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty is pushed to Northern Mongolia
Golden Horde Defeated
Northern Yuan Dynasty unifies central and east Mongolia
The Qing Conquers Southern Mongolia creating Inner Mongolia
The Manchu occupation of China that gave way to the establishment of Qing dynastic, created inner Mongolia which at the time held the semi-nomads of Mongolia.
The Qing empire offers protection to the northern Mongols, creating Outer Mongolia.
Outer Mongolia (which is further from the capital Beijing) had a greater degree of autonomy within the Qing domain.
Qing Rules Mongolia
Approx. 1692 - Approx. 1911
The Qing put in place a system of government where the people of Mongolia did all of the work for their government giving the a measure of freedom while still being able to make rules from afar. This work well because the Mongolians knew what needed to be done for their country and had the drive to make it happen.
The Treaty of Kyakhta fixes the western border between the Russian and Manchu empires, confirming Qing dominion over Mongolia and Tuva
The Treaty of Kyakhta regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid-19th century
The Qing dynasty falls and Outer Mongolia declares its independence
Qing dynasty is last dynasty of China
Chinese army occupies Outer Mongolia
Mongolian revolutionaries found the Mongolian People's Party
With Red Army support, Mongolian revolutionaries drive out Chinese/ Tsarist forces and install the Mongolian "people's government".
"Rightists" who want private enterprise are ousted. "Leftists" who want communes are ousted. A "counter-revolutionary uprising" against the confiscation of monastery property is suppressed.
1928 - 1932
Mongolian Prime Minister Genden is arrested in Soviet Union; shot for spying for Japan. Minister of War Demid is poisoned aboard Trans-Siberian train. Monasteries and lamas destroyed
Battle of Khalkhyn Gol
Mongolian/Soviet troops commanded by General Zhukov defeat invasion by Japanese/Manchukuo forces
Mongolia's Stalin: Minister of War, Choybalsan is appointed prime minister. Ex-PM Amar is tried in Soviet Union and shot for spying for Japan
Yalta conference agrees to preserve Soviet control in Mongolia. Mongolians vote for independence and Mongolia is recognized by the Republic of China
1945 - 1946
Relations established with the People's Republic of China. Railway built across Mongolia linking Russia and China
1949 - 1955
Choybalsan dies, and is replaced as prime minister by Tsedenbal, the MPRP general secretary since 1940.
UN Security Council approves Mongolia's UN membership. Diplomatic relations established with the UK
1961 - 1963
Soviet Communist Party General-Secretary Brezhnev signs friendship treaty in Ulan Bator allowing secret stationing of Soviet troops in Mongolia.
Ulan Bator is Mongolia's capital
Mongolia accuses China of planning annexation and protests Chinese leaders' call for withdrawal of Soviet troops; some Chinese residents expelled
1973 - 1981
General-Secretary Tsedenbal, head of state since 1974, is forced out of office by the MPRP Politburo
Politburo: principal policymaking committee of Communist party
Street demonstrations force resignation of MPRP Politburo. Political parties are legalized. Elections to the Great Hural (parliament) are won by the MPRP
Mongolia's new constitution prioritizes human rights and freedoms
First direct presidential elections won by Ochirbat (nominated by National/Social Democrats)