Mongolia-Conquest and Government

Events

Liao Dynasty

907 - 1125

The Liao dynasty was also known as the Khitan Empire and was characterized by tension between Chinese and Khitan social and political practices. At its largest, it spanned Mongolia, northern Korea, northern China, and eastern Russian,

Wanyan Aguda rebels against Khitan Empire

1114


Aguda's rebellion resulted in the end of the Liao dynasty. He then founded the Jurchen Jin empire.

Kitan rule survives the fall of the Liao Dynasty

1125

Wanyan Wuqimai succeeds his brother, Wanyan Aguda

1125

Jin-Song Wars

1125 - 1234

Initially, the Jin and Song allied against the Liao in return for the return of Song territory in northern China. They succeeded but the Jin were reluctant to cede land which lead to the Jin-Song war.

Jin retains Song territory in northern China

1126

Yelü Dashi’s rule extended

1142


Dashi was a commander of the Khitan army who expanded the Liao dynasty to the Altai Mountains and Oxus river. He later founded the Qara Khitai (Western Liao Dynasty).

Genghis Khan Lifespan

Approx. 1162 - 1227


Genghis Khan was born as Temujin. He founded the Mongol Empire which then became the largest contiguous empire.

Genghis Khan becomes Khan of Khamag Mongol

1189

After becoming the Khan, he began to expand his empire and conquering most of Eurasia. His conquest was brutal and involved the massacre of many subjugated people.

The Mongol Empire

1206 - 1368

Genghis Khan dies

1227

Following his death, he divided his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons.

Rule of Ogedei Khan

1227 - 1241

Ogedei was Genghis Khan's successor. His first actions were to reestablish Mongol authority in Manchuria and to conquer Kipchak steppes. He was responsible for the collapse of the Jin dynasty, personally leading the attack.

Collapse of the Jin Empire

1234

The Mongol Empire under Ogedei attacked the Jin Empire and lead to its collapse.

Kublai Khan becomes 5th Khagan

1260

Toluid Civil War begins resulting in division of the Mongol Empire

1260

Empire Implodes

1267 - 1368

Kaidu- Kublai war begins; Mongol empire in 4 parts

1268

Kublai Khan proclaims the founding of the Yuan Dynasty with himself as first emperor

1271

Kublai Khan dies; Temur Khan becomes 6th Khagan

1294

Nominal supremacy of Yuan Dynasty

1304

Kulug Khan becomes 7th Khagan

1307

Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan becomes 8th Khagan

1311

Gegeen Khan becomes 9th Khagan

1320

Prevalence of Ming Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty is pushed to Northern Mongolia

1368

Golden Horde Defeated

1380

Northern Yuan Dynasty unifies central and east Mongolia

1425

The Qing Conquers Southern Mongolia creating Inner Mongolia

1636

The Manchu occupation of China that gave way to the establishment of Qing dynastic, created inner Mongolia which at the time held the semi-nomads of Mongolia.

The Qing empire offers protection to the northern Mongols, creating Outer Mongolia.

1691

Outer Mongolia (which is further from the capital Beijing) had a greater degree of autonomy within the Qing domain.

Qing Rules Mongolia

Approx. 1692 - Approx. 1911

The Qing put in place a system of government where the people of Mongolia did all of the work for their government giving the a measure of freedom while still being able to make rules from afar. This work well because the Mongolians knew what needed to be done for their country and had the drive to make it happen.

The Treaty of Kyakhta fixes the western border between the Russian and Manchu empires, confirming Qing dominion over Mongolia and Tuva

1727

The Treaty of Kyakhta regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid-19th century

The Qing dynasty falls and Outer Mongolia declares its independence

1911

Qing dynasty is last dynasty of China

Chinese army occupies Outer Mongolia

1919

Mongolian revolutionaries found the Mongolian People's Party

1920

With Red Army support, Mongolian revolutionaries drive out Chinese/ Tsarist forces and install the Mongolian "people's government".

1921

"Rightists" who want private enterprise are ousted. "Leftists" who want communes are ousted. A "counter-revolutionary uprising" against the confiscation of monastery property is suppressed.

1928 - 1932

Mongolian Prime Minister Genden is arrested in Soviet Union; shot for spying for Japan. Minister of War Demid is poisoned aboard Trans-Siberian train. Monasteries and lamas destroyed

1937

Mongolia's Stalin: Minister of War, Choybalsan is appointed prime minister. Ex-PM Amar is tried in Soviet Union and shot for spying for Japan

1939

Battle of Khalkhyn Gol

1939

Mongolian/Soviet troops commanded by General Zhukov defeat invasion by Japanese/Manchukuo forces

Yalta conference agrees to preserve Soviet control in Mongolia. Mongolians vote for independence and Mongolia is recognized by the Republic of China

1945 - 1946

Relations established with the People's Republic of China. Railway built across Mongolia linking Russia and China

1949 - 1955

Choybalsan dies, and is replaced as prime minister by Tsedenbal, the MPRP general secretary since 1940.

1952

UN Security Council approves Mongolia's UN membership. Diplomatic relations established with the UK

1961 - 1963

Soviet Communist Party General-Secretary Brezhnev signs friendship treaty in Ulan Bator allowing secret stationing of Soviet troops in Mongolia.

1966

Ulan Bator is Mongolia's capital

Mongolia accuses China of planning annexation and protests Chinese leaders' call for withdrawal of Soviet troops; some Chinese residents expelled

1973 - 1981

General-Secretary Tsedenbal, head of state since 1974, is forced out of office by the MPRP Politburo

1984

Politburo: principal policymaking committee of Communist party

Street demonstrations force resignation of MPRP Politburo. Political parties are legalized. Elections to the Great Hural (parliament) are won by the MPRP

1990

Mongolia's new constitution prioritizes human rights and freedoms

1992

First direct presidential elections won by Ochirbat (nominated by National/Social Democrats)

1993

MPRP candidate Bagabandi wins presidential election.

1997

IMF approves nearly $40 million in low-interest loans over next 3 years to boost economic growth/ reduce poverty; Bagabandi re-elected

2001

Dalai Lama visits. China denounces trip and warns Mongolian leaders not to meet with him; Mongolia sends 200 soldiers to Iraq

2002

Elbegdorj appointed prime minister; Russia writes off all but $300 million of Mongolia's debts.

2004

Protesters in capital demand gov. resignation and end to poverty/official corruption. MPRP candidate Nambaryn Enkhbayar wins presidential election

2005

Coalition gov. headed by Elbegdorj falls

2006

Prime Minister Miyeegombo Enkhbold resigns. He is replaced by MPRP leader Sanjaagiin Bayar

2007