Mongolia-Conquest and Government


Liao Dynasty

907 - 1125

The Liao dynasty was also known as the Khitan Empire and was characterized by tension between Chinese and Khitan social and political practices. At its largest, it spanned Mongolia, northern Korea, northern China, and eastern Russian,

Wanyan Aguda rebels against Khitan Empire


Aguda's rebellion resulted in the end of the Liao dynasty. He then founded the Jurchen Jin empire.

Jin-Song Wars

1125 - 1234

Initially, the Jin and Song allied against the Liao in return for the return of Song territory in northern China. They succeeded but the Jin were reluctant to cede land which lead to the Jin-Song war.

Wanyan Wuqimai succeeds his brother, Wanyan Aguda


Kitan rule survives the fall of the Liao Dynasty


Jin retains Song territory in northern China


Yelü Dashi’s rule extended


Dashi was a commander of the Khitan army who expanded the Liao dynasty to the Altai Mountains and Oxus river. He later founded the Qara Khitai (Western Liao Dynasty).

Genghis Khan Lifespan

Approx. 1162 - 1227

Genghis Khan was born as Temujin. He founded the Mongol Empire which then became the largest contiguous empire.

Genghis Khan becomes Khan of Khamag Mongol


After becoming the Khan, he began to expand his empire and conquering most of Eurasia. His conquest was brutal and involved the massacre of many subjugated people.

The Mongol Empire

1206 - 1368

Rule of Ogedei Khan

1227 - 1241

Ogedei was Genghis Khan's successor. His first actions were to reestablish Mongol authority in Manchuria and to conquer Kipchak steppes. He was responsible for the collapse of the Jin dynasty, personally leading the attack.

Genghis Khan dies


Following his death, he divided his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons.

Collapse of the Jin Empire


The Mongol Empire under Ogedei attacked the Jin Empire and lead to its collapse.

Toluid Civil War begins resulting in division of the Mongol Empire


Kublai Khan becomes 5th Khagan


Empire Implodes

1267 - 1368

Kaidu- Kublai war begins; Mongol empire in 4 parts


Kublai Khan proclaims the founding of the Yuan Dynasty with himself as first emperor


Kublai Khan dies; Temur Khan becomes 6th Khagan


Nominal supremacy of Yuan Dynasty


Kulug Khan becomes 7th Khagan


Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan becomes 8th Khagan


Gegeen Khan becomes 9th Khagan


Prevalence of Ming Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty is pushed to Northern Mongolia


Golden Horde Defeated


Northern Yuan Dynasty unifies central and east Mongolia


The Qing Conquers Southern Mongolia creating Inner Mongolia


The Manchu occupation of China that gave way to the establishment of Qing dynastic, created inner Mongolia which at the time held the semi-nomads of Mongolia.

The Qing empire offers protection to the northern Mongols, creating Outer Mongolia.


Outer Mongolia (which is further from the capital Beijing) had a greater degree of autonomy within the Qing domain.

Qing Rules Mongolia

Approx. 1692 - Approx. 1911

The Qing put in place a system of government where the people of Mongolia did all of the work for their government giving the a measure of freedom while still being able to make rules from afar. This work well because the Mongolians knew what needed to be done for their country and had the drive to make it happen.

The Treaty of Kyakhta fixes the western border between the Russian and Manchu empires, confirming Qing dominion over Mongolia and Tuva


The Treaty of Kyakhta regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid-19th century

The Qing dynasty falls and Outer Mongolia declares its independence


Qing dynasty is last dynasty of China

Chinese army occupies Outer Mongolia


Mongolian revolutionaries found the Mongolian People's Party


With Red Army support, Mongolian revolutionaries drive out Chinese/ Tsarist forces and install the Mongolian "people's government".


"Rightists" who want private enterprise are ousted. "Leftists" who want communes are ousted. A "counter-revolutionary uprising" against the confiscation of monastery property is suppressed.

1928 - 1932

Mongolian Prime Minister Genden is arrested in Soviet Union; shot for spying for Japan. Minister of War Demid is poisoned aboard Trans-Siberian train. Monasteries and lamas destroyed


Battle of Khalkhyn Gol


Mongolian/Soviet troops commanded by General Zhukov defeat invasion by Japanese/Manchukuo forces

Mongolia's Stalin: Minister of War, Choybalsan is appointed prime minister. Ex-PM Amar is tried in Soviet Union and shot for spying for Japan


Yalta conference agrees to preserve Soviet control in Mongolia. Mongolians vote for independence and Mongolia is recognized by the Republic of China

1945 - 1946

Relations established with the People's Republic of China. Railway built across Mongolia linking Russia and China

1949 - 1955

Choybalsan dies, and is replaced as prime minister by Tsedenbal, the MPRP general secretary since 1940.


UN Security Council approves Mongolia's UN membership. Diplomatic relations established with the UK

1961 - 1963

Soviet Communist Party General-Secretary Brezhnev signs friendship treaty in Ulan Bator allowing secret stationing of Soviet troops in Mongolia.


Ulan Bator is Mongolia's capital

Mongolia accuses China of planning annexation and protests Chinese leaders' call for withdrawal of Soviet troops; some Chinese residents expelled

1973 - 1981

General-Secretary Tsedenbal, head of state since 1974, is forced out of office by the MPRP Politburo


Politburo: principal policymaking committee of Communist party

Street demonstrations force resignation of MPRP Politburo. Political parties are legalized. Elections to the Great Hural (parliament) are won by the MPRP


Mongolia's new constitution prioritizes human rights and freedoms


First direct presidential elections won by Ochirbat (nominated by National/Social Democrats)


MPRP candidate Bagabandi wins presidential election.


IMF approves nearly $40 million in low-interest loans over next 3 years to boost economic growth/ reduce poverty; Bagabandi re-elected


Dalai Lama visits. China denounces trip and warns Mongolian leaders not to meet with him; Mongolia sends 200 soldiers to Iraq


Elbegdorj appointed prime minister; Russia writes off all but $300 million of Mongolia's debts.


Protesters in capital demand gov. resignation and end to poverty/official corruption. MPRP candidate Nambaryn Enkhbayar wins presidential election


Coalition gov. headed by Elbegdorj falls


Prime Minister Miyeegombo Enkhbold resigns. He is replaced by MPRP leader Sanjaagiin Bayar