Central Asia: 1,000 - Present

Events

Cimmerian Age

1300 BC - 800 BC

During this time, Snubrians Advanced across the Pontic Steppes, and The tribes of the Forest Zone spread over Russia and to to the Baltic Coast. Since the Finno- Ugric Stock was a non nomadic peoples, this movement disproved the theory that migration in the steppes was a consequence of nomadism.

Sarmatian migration

600 BC - 400 BC

A group of Ancient Iranian People that Migrated from Central Asia to the Ural Mountains ( a mountain range that travels southwards from western Russia and the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and Northwest Kazakhstan). Between 600 and 400 BC. They settled in southern European Russia and in the Balkins.

New Sarmatian Tribes Form and Migrate

300 BC

New Tribes like the Aorsi, Roxolani, Alans, and the Lazyges are formed from the Sarmatians, and they advance westwards.

Population Decrease in Middle Sarmatian-Solovo Culture

250 BC - 200 BC

There is a sharp decrease in populations from the Danube River to the Southern Ural Steppes, that can be attributed to deterioration climatic conditions of the area along with continued tribal migrations to the west and southwest.

The Old Silk Road Is Developed

200 BCE - 1400 CE

This route was created by Europeans as means of trading for Chinese spices which throughout the years grew and developed wealth overtime. It crossed through many parts of Central Asia.

Roxolani come close to Rome

200 BC

In the Middle of the First Century this Tribe came close to the eastern Provinces of Rome.

Roxolani Travel West

Approx. 100 AD

The Roxolani had a group split off from them, and they took to the steeps between the lower Dnieper River (which travels through western Russia Down to Ukraine and the black Sea) and the Danube River (the second longest European River, That is found in central and eastern Europe).

Roxolani Annihilated

Approx. 400 AD

They are thought to have been eradicated by the huns, as they are last mentioned by the Gothic historian Jordan in a battle with the Huns

Tireks

400

Durring the fifth Century the Tireks, or groups of Turkic speaking tribes, settled in the steppe that extends from eastern Europe to northern Mongolia

Turkic Khaganate Rules

552 - 756

During the 6th century this empire ruled over the what is now Kazakhstan. This ethnic group stayed in power in the Gnansu, Eastern Turkestan and the Altai areas.

The Hephthalites

587

The main forces of the Hephthalites were defeated by the Turks in 587 near Bukhara. This was a tribe who spanned from the Caspian sea to northern India and Eastern Turkestan. Between 561 and 563, with the shared desire of eliminating the Hephtthalites, the Turks alliance with Iran.This union brought on its intended goal.

Arabs Conquer Central Asia

600

Arabs conquer Central Asia and convert inhabitants to Islam.

Ancient Turkmen Tribes Migrate from northeast

Approx. 900 - Approx. 1200

Nomadic Oghuz Seljuk tribes - the ancestors of present-day Turkmens - and Mongols immigrate from northeast; Genghis Khan conquers the region.

Kyrgyz Migrate Southward

900 AD - 1200 AD

The Kyrgyz migrate south from the Yenesei River in Siberia to the Tian-Shan region.

End of Samanid Empire

999 AD

Turks move into Northern Iran and Afghanistan

1040

Genghis Khan and the Mongols move from China to eastern Europe

1215 - 1220

Mongols Move into Russia

1237

Batu Khan and his Mongols sweep into Russia, where they and their descendants become known as the Golden Horde

Mongols move on Persia

1256

They cross the Amu Darya River under Hulagos command.

Tamerlane Conquers Tajikistan

1300 AD

The area that is now Tajikistan falls under the rule of Turkic Emperor Tamerlane.

Kyrgyz Freed from Mongol Rule

1510

After two hundred years of being ruled by first the Mongols, then their discenents the Golden Horde and the Oriot, Kyrgyzstan was freed.

Kyrgyz settle in Kyrgyzstan

1685

The Kyrgyz people settle in the region that is now Kyrgyzstan. it is conquered by the Mongols.

Afghanistan is founded

1747

Modern state of Afghanistan founded by Ahmad Shah Durran, who was formerly a bodyguard of the assassinated Persian ruler Nadir Shah.

Kyrgyzstan falls under Chinese Empire

1758

The Mongols are overthrown by Chinese Manchus and the Kyrgyz become subjects to China.

Alim Khan of Kokand captures Tashkent, Chimkent, and Sayram

1803 - 1809

He moves in to Kyrgyz territory to the northeast of his own kingdom. This ushers in a period of prosperity for the khanate, and a new mosque, many madrasas, and a palace are built in Kokand.

Russians take over Tajikstan

1864 - 1885

Russians gradually take control of the region that is Tajikistan.

Imigrants from Russia and Ukraine settle in Kazakhstan

1868 - 1916

Peasants from Russia and the Ukraine settle in Kazakhstan and start industrial enterprises.

Russia Conquers Kyrgyzstan

1876

Russia conquers Kyrgyzstan and makes it part of the Russian empire.

Turkmenistan is created as Russian Military Outpost

1881

Area of present-day Turkmenistan was incorporated into Russian Turkestan after the Battle of Gok Tepe.

Russia’s conquest of Central Asia ends

1885

This finalizes the establishment of czarist Russia’s southern borders. The region is unified under the name of the “Turkestan Government-General” with Tashkent as its capital and Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–1882) as its first governor.

Kazakhs revolt against the Russian Czar

1916

More than 300,000 people fled the country while 150,000 where killed in this revolt against the Russian Czar.

Kyrgyz Attempt a Revolution

1916

The Kyrgyz attempt to rebel against the Soviet government, but they are violently repressed. Many Kyrgyz flee to the mountains and China to escape.

Civil War in Kazakhstan

1917

This civil war quickly followed the Bolshevik revolution in Russia.

Soviet Purges in Tajikistan

1927 - 1938

Russians purge Tajikistan in an ethnic cleanse of 10,000 people, making room for Russians, who take over most positions of power.

Tajikistan made a Soviet Socialist Republic

October 16th 1929

Tajikistan is promoted to the the status of a Soviet Socialist Republic

Russia Deports people to Kazakhstan

Approx. 1940

USSR Premier Stalin ordered mass deportation of hundreds of thousands of Koreans, Crimean Tatars, and Germans to Kazakhstan.

Ethnic Kazakhs Reduced to a minority

1954 - 1962

Nikita Khrushchev, the soviet leader, initiated a campaign to develop virgin lands in Kazakhstan that moved nearly 2 million people, and reduced ethic Kazakhs to a minority population.

Soviet War in Afghanistan

1979 - 1989

More than five millions Afghans were forced to migrate out of their country during the Soviet war and invasion in Afghanistan, 1979-1989.

Islam Karimov becomes Leader of Uzbekistan

1989

Islam Karimov becomes leader of Uzbekistan and remains in office even after Uzbekistan declares independence.

Dushanbe Riots

1990

The rumor that Armenian refugees were being housed during a time where there was a shortage of housing led 13,000 Tajiks to two days of violent riots, killing 26 people and injuring more than five hundred more.

Kazakhstan Declares Independence from the Soviet Union

1991

Uzbekistan's Independence

1991

Uzbekistan gains independence from Russia.

Tajikistan Declares Its Independence

September 9, 1991

Tajikistan becomes independent from Russia.

Turkmenistan Independence

October 27, 1991

Turkmenistan declares its independence from Russia after 69 years as part of the Soviet Union.

Kyrgyzstan Declares Independence

25th December 1991

Tajikistani Civil War

1992 - 1997

The civil war, which started over economic and political issues, caused an extreme increase in unemployment (0.6% to 30%) and destroyed much of Tajikistan's development. This resulted in over 250,000 people fleeing the country.

The rise of Islam Karlmov

2005

Karimov had to use brutal force in Andijan in 2005 to quash threats to his rule; it took the current president a long time to establish his control.

Kyrgyzstan Tulip Revolution

2005

Protests lead Kygyzstan's President, Askar Akayev, to resign. He flees to Russia and is quickly replaced by Kurmanbek Bakiyev.

Central Asian Countries Sign Nuclear-free zone treaty

2006

Five central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan signed nuclear-free zone treaty

Global Economic Crisis

2008 - 2010

Despite the Global Economic Crisis, the rate of labor migration from Central Asia remained stable.

Islam Karimov Dies

September 2nd, 2016

Islam Karimov, dictator of Uzbekistan, dies in office, ending his era of harsh ruling.

Conclusion

April 26th 2017

For centuries, the nomads of Central Asia lived a migratory lifestyle. They traveled, explored new land, and were not tied down to farms or an agricultural lifestyle. This behavior can be explained with ideas Harari presented about human nature in Sapiens: humans have a need to explore and make new things, as well as expanding their population. They also tend to follow their food sources; by migrating around, the nomads never really used up any particular plant or animal.

This continued with few changes until the modern era, when the Soviet Union decided to expand into Central Asia. With ethnic cleansings reducing native citizens to a minority in most of the countries, Russia was able to expand its power. They also forced Central Asia to become more like the Western world, by having nomads settle down on farms instead of constantly migrating.

Ultimately, this take over had a negative impact on Central Asia. Even now, when they are all independent countries, they are having issues with corrupt elections and politicians, poverty, and damaged infrastructures. But that's not to say that all was lost; in many parts of Central Asia, especially in rural areas, people continue to carry on the nomadic traditions and celebrations of their ancestors.