Unit 5: The Minoans and Mycenaeans
The Minoans dominate sea trade along the Aegean Sea. The Minoans establish other greek city-states to develop through trade
The Mycenaeans dominate the Greek mainland and dominate trade, which allows them to become very wealthy
The Minoan civilization disappears mysteriously with no trace of disappearence and all trace of trade activity disapears as well.
The Dorians move into Greece. However, they bring nothing new to Greece and start the Greek Dark Age, a period of Greek decline and non-prosperity.
Unit 6: The Greeks
The First known Olympic Games occured during this time. It is obviously played today and it was originally held to honor the four gods every four years.
Spartans conquer the Messenians. The Messenians would later become the Helots and were harshly forced to worked on Spartan land
The Messenians had enough of the harsh rule of the Spartans and revolted against them. The Spartans were barely able to stop the revolt. They barely stopped it, causing them to build up their army into one of the best in the world
Draco develops the Draconian Law, a harsh law code that harshly punished criminals. The Draconian Law also made debtors become slaves to pay off their debts
Solon rules Greece during this time and makes 2 important decisions. Solon gets rid of debt slavery and establishes four social clases based on wealth that would determine a person's ranking in society
Cleisthenes rules Greece during this time. He reforms the idea of democracy, splits Athens into ten groups based on where you live, and increased the power of the ecclesia.
The Ionian Greeks revolted against the harsh Persian taxes. This event would end up causing the Peloponnesian Wars that would majorly affect the Persians and Greeks.
The Battle of Marathon would take place between 25,000 Persians and 11,000 Greeks. The Athenians were under the command of Militides and Pheidippides ran 25 miles in 3 hours to Athens to tell the Greeks that they had won and not to leave. This prepared them to scare the Persians off from attack when they came back to attack, but they saw the Greeks were ready to fight again.
The Persians relaunched the Persian Wars by launching a new invasion. They easily got to the mainland of Greece by building a bridge of boats at the Hellespont. This would start the Battle of Thermopylae, which the Greeks would win.
The Golden Age of Athens happened during this time, a period where Athens
flourished and historicall\y advanced tremendously. Advancements that happened during this time included comedy, tragedy, the first Olympics, classical art, and the first good historians.
Pericles leads Greece through the Golden Age. He had 3 goals for Rome, which were strengthening Athenian democracy, strengthening the empire, and glorifying Greece.
Also called the Peloponnesian Wars, this war would continue on and off until Athens contracted a plague and Sparta would take advantage and force Athens to surrender and Sparta would win the war.
The Macedonians would defeat the Greeks. Led by Philip I, they would end greek independence and maintain peace among Greeks.
The Macedonian invasion of Greece and Thebes. After defeating them with an army led by Philip I, they would lose their independence and maintain their independence
Alexander's first invasion of Persia went very well as he was able to defeat them easily at the Granicus River and take Persian cities after that.
Alexander's second invasion of Persia went just as well as the first as he was able to easily defeat the Persians as Issus. Darius III flees from the battle.
Darius III is killed by his own general. This ensures immediate doom for Persia and an immediate victory for Alexander the Great, as he wins over Persia.
Unit 7: The Romans
The Romans overthrow Tarquin the Proud. This signals that the Romans don't want to be ruled by a king and declare they shall never be ruled by a king.
The 12 tables are made to ensure the basis of Roman law and a civil empire. This all protected the citizens of the Romans, The 12 tables were hung in the Roman Forum.
The Romans moved their capital to Byzantium and also renamed it to Constantinople. This move came after the restore of the empire.
A series of wars between Rome and Carthage. Scipio governed the Romans and Hannibal governed the Carthaginians. It was very close, but in the end, Hannibal lost major battles and lost to Rome.
The Battle of Zama ended up being the most important battle in the Punic Wars. The Romans were able to give Hannibal his only loss during the Punic Wars. The Romans ended up winning the war from this one loss.
Julius Caesar marched across the Rubicon River and declared war on Pompey. Caesar would end up killing Pompey and declared himself dictator for life. Caesar was later assassinated on the steps of the senate on the same year.
Octavian was fighting against Marc Antony and in the Battle of Actium, he forced Marc Antony to commit suicide as well as Cleopatra. This also ended the Roman Republic.
The Pax Romana is a period of "Roman peace" where they flourished and prospered during this period.
When the great fire of Rome occured, the emperor Nero accused the Christians of burning the city and the Christians were used as scapegoats.
The Christians in Rome were finally able to worship in public after Christianity is legalized in Rome. The persecution of Christian Romans ended as well.
During the council of Nicaea, the Nicene Creed was created, which says the full beliefs of a Catholic. This became the full beliefs of the catholic church.
The Romans move their capital to Byzantium, where it was renamed to Constantinople. The city was renamed in honor of Constantine.
Emperor Theodosius makes Christianity official religion of the empire. This would also ban the worship of many gods.
Rome is destroyed and the extremely successful empire crumbles to the ground. It is ousted by german forces and the eastern half of the empire goes on to rule as the byzantine empire.