AP World History Timeline (600BCE-600CE)


Roman Monarchy

753 BCE - 510 BCE

Etruscans took over Roman kingdom
King had supreme military, executive, and judicial authority
Senate-council of elders
Distrust of monarchy led to overthrow

Persian Empire

559 BCE - Approx. 650 CE

Founded by Cyrus, began in modern day Iran
4 major dynasties: Achaemenids(major), Seleucids, Parthians, and Sasanids
Qanat-underground irrigation/canals
Royal Road, Satraps and Satrapies used to maintain control on the empire and collect taxes

Roman Republic

509 BCE - 27 BCE

Class Structure- Patricians, Plebeians, Slaves
3 major branches of government: Elected Magistrates, Senate, Assemblies
12 Tables of Roman Law
Rome began to expand
Paterfamilias (men ruled the household)

Persian Wars

500 BCE - 479 BCE

Persia invaded Greece
Battle of Marathon, Thermopylae
First time the Greeks viewed themselves as Greeks collectively (previously viewed as separate nation-states)

Athenian Golden Age

480 BCE - 404 BC

Athens, a Greek city-state experienced a Golden Age under Pericles
Pericles invested in making Athens stronger(strong navy), and more beautiful
3 famous philosophers of Athens: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

Warring States Period

475 BCE - 222 BCE

Period of disunity in China between the Zhou Dynasty and the Qin Dynasty
Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism developed during this time

Trans-Saharan Trade Route

Approx. 450 BCE

Established around the 5th century BCE
Salt, Gold, and other raw materials were traded
Camels were used to cross the desert

Peloponnesian War

431 BCE - 404 BCE

Athens and its allies vs. Sparta and its allies
Athens lost, losing its empire as well
Sparta was weakened, leading to it falling later to Thebes

Mauryan Empire

322 BCE - 232 BCE

Founded by Chandragupta Maurya
The empire was divided into segments called provinces
One of the most famous ruler was Ashoka Maurya
Mauryan dynasty fell apart about 50 years after Ashoka's death

Punic Wars

264 BCE - 146 BCE

A series of wars between Rome and Carthage (a wealthy Phoenician colony)
Rome took Sicily in the first war
Hannibal of Carthage was defeated in the second war
Rome completely destroyed Carthage in the third war (Cato)

Qin Dynasty

221 BCE - 206 BCE

Qin Shihuangdi
Harsh, ambitious leader,
Centralized state, killed or exiled anyone who resisted his authority
Burned books that did not go with his beliefs, burned scholars alive
Expanded the empire, standardized Chinese script and coinage, built new roads and canals, improved trade

Han Dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE

Overthrew the Qin
First use of the civil service exam, Silk Roads begin to be used
Science and technology prospered, invented paper, improved the plow, calculated the year to be 365.25 days
Disease, unfairly treated peasants, and the Yellow Turban Rebellion all helped lead to the fall of the Han Dynasty.


200 BCE - 600 CE

Made pottery and textiles
Nazca Lines (geoglyphs)

Roman Empire

26 BCE - 476 CE

Augustus (Octavian) 1st emperor
Pax Romana-200 years of Roman peace and prosperity
Family became less important
Long distance trade, wealthy class
Roman Aqueducts, Roman Colosseum, Circus Maximus, Pantheon
The large size, series of poor leaders, invasions from Germanic tribes, and economic issues lead to the decline of the Roman Empire
Eastern Rome became the Byzantine Empire while western Rome collapsed in 476 CE


1 CE - 800 CE

Had a social structure, ceramics, and did metalwork
No written language
Priests and warriors were honored, had a complex social structure


100 CE - 940 CE

Founded in present-day Ethiopia
Agricultural economy: wheat, barley, millet
Traded and made much money by taxing trade
Christianity declared the official religion in 330 CE
Defeated the Kushites in the 340s CE
Began declining around 600 CE

Mayan Civilzation

250 CE - Approx. 900 CE

Yucatan Peninsula
Had a social structure, glyph writing, number system, and calendar
Polytheistic, made sacrifices, studied astronomy
Trade system, great warriors
Used Pok-a-tok from the Olmecs
Declined due to overcrowded cities, environmental damages, and a severe drought

Gupta Empire

320 CE - 550 CE

Founded by Chandra Gupta
Caste System
Golden Age: Concept of "0", developed "Arabic" Numerals
Built free hospitals and made medical advancements
Hinduism and Buddhism both prevalent
Declined due to the diversity of the people and the Gupta being incapable to effectively control them



604 BCE - 531 BCE

The Old Master, Developed Daoism (Taoism)
Dao De JIng (collection of Laozi's ideas)
Yin and Yang

Cyrus the Great

559 BCE - 530 BCE

Founder of the Persian Empire
Great military leader
Lenient with conquered peoples, used satraps and satrapies to keep control
Known as a "lawgiver" by the Greeks


551 BC - 479 BC

K'ung Fu-Tzu
Lived in a very turbulent time in China
Developed ideas based on filial piety and respect
Confucianism has been a huge part of Chinese history

Darius the Great

549 BC - 486 BC

Built Persepolis (Capital of Persian Empire)
Expanded the Persian Empire
Built the Royal Road

Alexander the Great

356 BCE - 323 BCE

King of Macedon
Conquered Persia, Egypt, Fertile Crescent, as far as India
Spread Hellenistic culture in his conquering
Empire fell apart after his death

Han Fei Zu

280 BCE - 233 BCE

Developed Legalism
Believed that society needed a system of strict laws and punishments to control people


268 BCE - 232 BCE

Ashoka the Great, Mauryan leader
A fierce warrior and an effective governor
Made the Rock and Pillar Edicts to display the government policies and rules for all people to see

Han Wudi

141 BCE - 87 BCE

Han Dynasty's most significant emperor
Expanded Han territory
Introduced the civil service exam
Ushered in a period of Chinese peace known as Pax Sinica

Julius Caesar

100 BCE - 44 BCE

Military leader in Rome who made himself near emperor of Rome, paved the way for Augustus to be the first emperor
1st Triumvirate
Assassinated by the Senate on the Ides of March

Augustus Caesar

63 BCE - 14 CE

First emperor of Rome
Adopted son of Julius Caesar


6 BC - 30 CE

Man believed to be a prophet and son of God by Christians
He and his disciples took a major part in spreading Christianity throughout the world