Term 2 Timeline (Joseph D'Agostino)

Events

Minoans

2000 bc - 1400 bc

Possibly the first people in modern day Greece. They settled on the island of Crete. The Minoans also had a very strong navy and an impeccable trade system. The city of Knossos was the capital city of Minoa. Also the Minoans were very athletic and peaceful, their cities did not have many fortifications.

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Myceneans

1700 bc - 1200 bc

The Myceneans were Indo-Europeans who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 bc. They created a capital city called Mycenae, unlike Knossos (the Minoan capital) the city was heavily fortified. A very famous piece of the fortification was the "Lion's Gate". The "Lion's Gate" was a large gate to the city. It was the first large scale sculpture in Europe. It was so large that the legend says that it was built by giant cyclopes. The Myceneans went without trade for years, but after the saw the value of it they became very wealthy off of it, they soon dominated trade over the Minoans. But sadly in 1200 bc the civilization falls and the cities are burnt to the ground by unknown sea raiders.

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Disappearing of the Minoans

1450 bc

The Minoans mysteriously disappeared in the year 1450

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Greek Dark Age

1150 bc - 750 bc

The Greek Dark Age all started when a group of People named the Dorians move into the Greek Mainland. Soon they start to dominate the land and the Greek culture goes into a very large decline. Also the artwork and the trade stop.

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First Olympics

776 bc

The first Olympics was held in Athens Greece. The Olympics were originally made to worship and pay respects to Zeus. The Olympics were to be held every four years.

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Spartans conquer Messenia

725 bc

The Spartans the Messenians and then they become the Spartan's slaves. The conquered Messenians were called Helots. The Helots became the Spartan's slaves.

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Helots revolt against Sparta

625 bc

after 100 years of being harshly ruled by the Spartans they finally had enough. They revolted, but sadly lost. But the Spartan army took major losses. That made the Spartan realize that they had to increase their military power.

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Draconian Law

621 bc

Draco creates the first law code in Athens. It is developed off of the equality of citizens. It is very harsh. An example of it's harshness is that one law states that if you in debt you have to become a slave to pay off the debts.

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Solon comes to power

594 BC

A man named Solon comes to power in Athens and gets rid of the debt slavery that Draco created with his law code.

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Tarquin the Proud

509 bc

Tarquin the Proud is overthrown and the "Romans" swear to never have a King again

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Cleisthenes comes to power

500 bc

Cleisthenes comes to power in Athens and reforms the idea of Democracy by splitting Athens into ten groups based on where you live. Also he increased the power of the ecclesia, which was a group of men who ran the government.

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Ionian Greeks rebel

499 bc - 493 bc

The Ionian Greeks off of the coast of Anatolia rebel against the Persians because of the high taxes

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Persians lose at Marathon

490 bc

The Persians are defeated at the Battle of Marathon by the Athenians. The Persians lost because they were out witted by the Athenians.

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Battle of Salamis

480 bc

The Persians burn down the city of Athens. Afterwards the Persians try to attack Salamis but are met by 380 Athenian naval ships. The Persians are ambushed by a guerrilla type plan from the Athenians.

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Greek Golden Age

477 bc - 431 bc

The Greek Golden age started in 477 bc after the Persian Wars. A leader named Pericles was a very important figure during the golden age. Pericles had three goals; one was to strengthen the Athenian Democracy, Strengthen the empire and finally he wanted to Glorify Athens. Those three goals helped the Athenians in the Golden Age

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Pericles

461 bc - 429 bc

Pericles was a very important ruler in Athenian history. He lead Athens through their Golden Age and helped improve the empire in three main way. He restructured Athenian democracy he strengthened the Empire and he also glorified it.

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12 Tables

451 bc

The 12 Tables were the first law code in Rome. The stone tablet was shown in the enter of the city.

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Peloponnesian War

431 bc - 404 bc

The Peloponnesian War was a war between the Athenians and the Spartans. The battles are quite balanced because Athens has a stronger navy than Sparta, but the Spartan Hoplite are far more experienced and trained than the Athenians. The Spartans won the war because of two reasons. The first reason is that they joined forces with the Persians to take down the Athenians. Also the Athenians were swept with a large plague that killed over 1/3 of the population. The war left Athens very weak and not wealthy.

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Battle of Chaeronea

338 bc

The Macedonians invade and defeat the Greeks which ends all Greek independence. The Corinthian League emerges from this. The League was created by Philip and it was created to maintian peace between all of Greece.

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Alexander the Great invades Persia

334 bc

When Alexander invaded Persia it was the start to his ten year campaign in which he conquered most of the known world.

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Battle of Issus

333 bc

The battle of Issus resulted in a huge loss for Persia. Also Darius III flees from the battle which is a sign that he is truly getting dominated. He was soon hunted down and murdered.

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Battle at Gaugamela

331 bc

The battle was another huge loss for Persia. But this loss resulted in the conquering of all of Persia.

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Alexander conquers parts of the IRV

326 bc

At this point in time Alexander has captured almost all of the known world, including parts of the Indus River Valley. The battle at Hydaspes River resulted in a victory for Alexander but his troops have had enough, they mutinied. The troops marched over 20,000 miles in the matter of ten years.

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Punic Wars

264 bc - 146 bc

The Punic Wars were three wars in between Rome and Carthage. In result of these wars Carthage was completely destroyed, to the point that their fields were salted which means that the land could never be used again.

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Battle of Zama

202 bc

At the battle of Zama Scipio defeats Hannibal in a gruesome battle. The victory over Hannibal allows Rome to take the Mediterranean. This happens during the second Punic war

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Caesar is dictator

44 bc

Julius Caesar was a beloved figure in Roman history. He was chosen as dictator because Rome was in a state of distress. He then later promoted himself to dictator for life.

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Battle of Actium

31 bc

The battle of Actium was a very major battle in Roman history. This battle was a large naval battle which forced Marc Antony and Cleopatra to commit suicide. This series of events ended the Roman republic.

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Rome's Peak

27 bc - 180 ad

Rome's peak happened in these years even though the Romans weren't under the republic. There was lots of peace and prosperity.

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The fall of the Roman Republic

27 bc

This was the year that the Roman republic officially ended although it technically ended when Cleopatra and Marc Antony committed suicide.

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Great fire of Rome

64 AD

The great fire of Rome was a fire that burned most of the city and may have been started by the emperor himself, Emperor Nero. When the fire finally died Nero took it upon himself to blame the Christians for the fire.

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The beginning of Christian freedom

313 ad

The Christians for almost a hundred years were hated by the Romans, so much so that if you were caught worshiping you would be killed. But in 313 ad it was finally aloud to worship as a Christian.

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Council of Nicaea

325 ad

The council of Nicaea which was held in 325 ad created the Nicene Creed which stated all of the Christian beliefs.

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Christianity is official

330 ad

After hundreds of years of separately worshiping and having ceremonies and prayer in secret the Christain religion becomes the official religion of Rome.

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The Capital is moved

330 ad

The capital of Rome is moved to Byzantium and is renamed to Constantinople.

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The western empire falls

476 ad

The Western empire falls due to internal and external problems. An internal problem was the lack of control of the population. Rome got so big that it was almost impossible to spread of all of the power evenly throughout the empire. An external problem was the The Germanic tribes and the Huns were constantly terrorizing the borders. Which then made the borders a lot more densely populated.

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