Russia: 1904-1905


Russo Japanese War Begins

January 26th 1904

The Russo-Japanese War begins

Pro-Tsarist Rallys

January 30th 1904

A crowd of more than 80,000 rallies in St. Petersburg in support of the tsar and the government

Declaration of Loyalty

May 20 1904

A workers’ union represented by Father Gapon presents Tsar Nicholas II with a Declaration of Loyalty

Assassination of Vyacheslav Konstantinovich von Plehve

July 15 1904

Plehve, a government hardliner and opponent to reform, is killed by radical SRs, sparking public celebrations

Establishment of National Assembly of Zemstvos

Nov 6 1904

104 delegates from Zemstvos across Russia meet and propose a ‘National Assembly of Zemstvos‘

Pro-Zemstvo Decrees

Dec 12 1904

Tsarist decrees increase the authority of the Zemstvos and ease censorship, however the tsar does not agree to an assembly

Establishment of 'Vpered'

Dec 22 1904

Supported by funds from Japan, Lenin launches a left-wing newspaper called 'Vpered'. It lasts for six months before being shut down

Mass Strikes

Jan 3 1905 - Jan 6 1905

More than 120,000 industrial workers go on strike in St Petersburg

Gapon Rallies Workers

Jan 7 1905

Striking workers declare their intention to march to the Winter Palace to submit a petition to the tsar. The government moves troops into the city, while Tsarist ministers announce they are not expecting any violence

Bloody Sunday

Jan 9 1905

Tsarist troops open fire on a peaceful demonstration of workers in the streets of St Petersburg on ‘Bloody Sunday’

Assassination of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich

Feb 4 1905

Alexandrovich, the much-hated former governor of Moscow and an uncle of the tsar, is assassinated by an SR agent

Mass Closure of Universities

March 18 1905

Believing them to be a source of revolutionary ideas and tension, the Tsarist government orders the closure of universities until the next academic year

Odessa Strikes

April 8 1905

Strikes break out in factories and at the docks in Odessa

The Bolshevik Third Party Congress Begins

Apr 12 1905

The Bolshevik Third Party Congress begins in London. It hears but rejects a proposal to re-unite with the Mensheviks

Battle of Tsushima

May 15 1905

The Battle of Tsushima results in almost the entire Russian Baltic Fleet being destroyed or taken captive by the Japanese

Potemkin Mutiny

June 14 1905 - June 24 1905

Sailors aboard a Russian battleship revolt, murder their officers and take command of the ship

Cossack Shootings

Sep 26 1905

Cossack soldiers open fire on protestors in Moscow; ten people die

Sevastopol Mutiny

Oct 1 1905 - Nov 26 1905

An uprising of several thousand military personnel at a naval base in Sevastopol, Ukraine. It is eventually crushed by troops loyal to the tsar

Lenin Urges Revolution

Oct 3 1905

In exile in London, Lenin calls on Bolsheviks inside to Russia to arm themselves and “form fighting squads at once”

Formation of Soldier's and Worker's Soviet

Oct 13 1905

A Menshevik-dominated council, the Soviet of Soldiers’ and Workers’ Deputies, is formed in St Petersburg, with Leon Trotsky appointed vice-chairman

October Manifesto

Oct 17 1905

Nicholas II signs and enacts the October Manifesto. It is received well but does not quell the unrest

Establishment of Council of Ministers

Oct 19 1905

Sergei Witte announces the creation of a Council of Ministers, offering key posts to Kadets, who refuse the offer

Mass Military Mutinies

Oct 26 1905 - Oct 31 1905

Mutinies erupt at the Kronstadt and Vladivostok military bases; the Kronstadt sailors vote to form their own soviet

Lenin Returns

Nov 8 1905

Lenin returns to St Petersburg

Khrustalyov-Nosar Arrested

Nov 26 1905

The head of the St Petersburg Soviet is arrested by tsarist police

St. Petersburg Soviet Arrests

December 3rd 1905

Approximately 250 members of the St Petersburg Soviet are arrested, reportedly for taking receipt of a large cache of weapons

Reign Reinforced

Dec 15 1905

Witte orders the army and Tsarist police to crackdown on suspected terrorists, protestors and the radical press

Moscow Uprising of 1905

Dec 15 1905 - dec 19 1905

Tsarist troops finally crush the Moscow uprising, killing hundreds

Alexander Kerensky Arrested

Dec 23 1905

A young radical SR member and future head of the provisional government, Alexander Kerensky, is arrested and imprisoned after being found with inflammatory anti-tsarist literature