Important Events in History

Made by: Nicolas Pacelli

Events

The Minoans

2000 BC - 1400 BC

The Minoans live on the island of Crete. They dominate sea trade during this time. They named themselves after King Minos. The Minoans also created a written language that hasn't been translated yet called Linear A.

Mycenaean Civilization

1700 BC - 1200 BC

They had heavy fortifications and were ruled by warrior kings. They also had the Lion's Gate, a 10x10 arch way into Mycenae. They invented the written language Linear B which has been translated.

The Minoans Disappear

1450 BC

The Minoans mysteriously disappeared at this time. Some believe it may have been a volcanic eruption that happened around the same time.

The Greek Dark Ages

1150 BC - 750 BC

This was a time where trade and economy had stopped, no written records were left behind, and it was not advanced. During this time there was also the famous Trojan War which may not have been 100% true.

The First known Olympics

776 BC

This was the time of the first ever known Olympic games. Held to honor the gods every 4 years. Some sports included running, long jump, javelin throwing, shot put, and boxing.

Sparta conquers Messenia

725 BC

Sparta conquered Messenia. Messenians become Helots or slaves forced to farm the land.

Messenian revolt

625 BC

Messenians revolt against harsh rule. Spartans just barely defeated the revolt. Made them the power they are hyped up to be.

Athen's legal system

612 BC

Draco creates a law code based on equality of citizens. This law was the Draconian Law. This was a harsh law that meant fatal punishments for criminals with death being the main punishment.

Solon

594 BC

Solon ruled during this time. He removed debt slavery and established four social classes based on wealth.

Tarquin the Proud

509 BC

The Romans overthrow horrible Etruscan king named Tarquin the Proud. They also decided to never have a king again. This leads to a Republic.

Cleisthenes

500 BC

A statesmen who reformed the idea of democracy by splitting Athens into ten groups based on where you live. He also increased the power of the ecclesi.

Ionian Greeks

499 BC - 493 BC

The Ionian Greeks on the coast of Anatolia revolt against taxes from the Persians.

The Battle of Marathon

490 BCE

There were 25,000 Persians vs. 11,000 Athenians. The Athenians under command of Miltiades. In the end, the Athenians defeated the Persians and a runner named Pheidippides runs all the way to Athens to warn the citizens not to evacuate. This led to the Persians retreating back to Persia.

Xerxes' Attack on Athens

480 BC

Xerxes becomes the new ruler of Persia and launches another attack at Athens. He builds bridge of boats at the Hellespont to cross to the other side.

The Battle of Salamis

480 BC

This was when Persians find Athens deserted and set fire to the city. The Persians try to attack at Salamis with 800 warships against the Greeks 380 warships. The Greek leader was Themistocles and with his genius they easily won the battle.

Athens Golden Age

477 BC - 431 BC

This is the time where Athens flourished. It was known as the Golden Age.

Pericles rules Athens

461 BC - 429 BC

Pericles leads Athens in this time and sets three goals for the city. 1. Strengthen Athenian Democracy, 2. Hold and Strengthen Athenian “Empire”, and 3. To Glorify Athens.

Law in the Republic

451 BC

The law code was known as the 12 Table. These were Roman laws carved onto stone tablets. They confirmed the rights of all free citizens to be protected by law.

Peloponnesean War

431 BCE - 404 BCE

War breaks out between Athens and Sparta and will continue on and off. Athens had a better navy, but Sparta had a better army. During this time a plague broke out and killed 1/3 of the population, including Pericles.

Battle of Chareronea

338 BC

This was a battle where Macedonians invade and defeat Greeks. This ends the Greek Independence

Alexander The Great invades Persia

334 BC

Alexander invades Persia and has his first victory at the Granicus River.He starts taking control of Persian cities 1 by 1.

Alexander The Great invades Issus

333 BC

Alexander took over Issus on his road to victory over Persia. This was one of his many stops of this victory.

Alexander the Great takes over Gaugamela

331 BC

Persia is defeated again in 331 BC by Alexander.

Restoring the Roman Empire

330 BC

Constantine “restores” the empire by moving the capital to Byzantium but renamed it Constantinople.

Alexander and the Indus River

326 BC

Alexander conquers part of the Indus River at the battle at the Hydaspes River. He then wants to move into the Ganges River territory.

The Punic Wars

264 B.C. - 146 B.C.

This was 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage. Carthage was a powerful Phoenician city-state

Hannibal is Defeated

202 BC

Scipio, a Roman general, defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama.

Caesar Assassination

44 BC

Julius Caesar declares himself the dictator for life. This also led to his assassination by senators including his friends Gaius Cassius, and Marcus Brutus.

Battle of Actium

31 BC

This battle was because of civil wars between Octavian and Marc Antony. This leads to the end of the Roman Republic.

Octavian the Emperor

27 BC

Octavian becomes the sole ruler of Rome. He is known as the first ever Emperor. He rules are unchallenged for a long time and no citizens have any rights.

Pax Romana

27 BC - 180 AD

Pax Romana is also known as Roman Peace. This was a time of peace and prosperity in Rome.

The Great Fire of Rome

64 AD

This was a fire that is said to have been set by Emperor Nero so he could blame the Christians. This was a time where there was a lot of tension in Rome.

Edict of Milan

313 AD

Emperor Constantine created a law that legalized Christianity. This end the persecution of Christians.

Council of Nicaea

325 AD

The Nicene Creed was written. This was a statement of beliefs of the Christian Church.

Christianity the official religion of Roman Empire

380 AD

Emperor Theodosius declares that Christianity is the official religion of the empire.

Western Empire falls

476 AD

The Western Empire fell for three reasons, it had Internal problems, outside invasions, and the separation of Western Empire from Eastern Empire. The Western Empire couldn't support itself.