Made by: Nicolas Pacelli
The Minoans live on the island of Crete. They dominate sea trade during this time. They named themselves after King Minos. The Minoans also created a written language that hasn't been translated yet called Linear A.
They had heavy fortifications and were ruled by warrior kings. They also had the Lion's Gate, a 10x10 arch way into Mycenae. They invented the written language Linear B which has been translated.
The Minoans mysteriously disappeared at this time. Some believe it may have been a volcanic eruption that happened around the same time.
This was a time where trade and economy had stopped, no written records were left behind, and it was not advanced. During this time there was also the famous Trojan War which may not have been 100% true.
This was the time of the first ever known Olympic games. Held to honor the gods every 4 years. Some sports included running, long jump, javelin throwing, shot put, and boxing.
Sparta conquered Messenia. Messenians become Helots or slaves forced to farm the land.
Messenians revolt against harsh rule. Spartans just barely defeated the revolt. Made them the power they are hyped up to be.
Draco creates a law code based on equality of citizens. This law was the Draconian Law. This was a harsh law that meant fatal punishments for criminals with death being the main punishment.
Solon ruled during this time. He removed debt slavery and established four social classes based on wealth.
The Romans overthrow horrible Etruscan king named Tarquin the Proud. They also decided to never have a king again. This leads to a Republic.
A statesmen who reformed the idea of democracy by splitting Athens into ten groups based on where you live. He also increased the power of the ecclesi.
The Ionian Greeks on the coast of Anatolia revolt against taxes from the Persians.
There were 25,000 Persians vs. 11,000 Athenians. The Athenians under command of Miltiades. In the end, the Athenians defeated the Persians and a runner named Pheidippides runs all the way to Athens to warn the citizens not to evacuate. This led to the Persians retreating back to Persia.
Xerxes becomes the new ruler of Persia and launches another attack at Athens. He builds bridge of boats at the Hellespont to cross to the other side.
This was when Persians find Athens deserted and set fire to the city. The Persians try to attack at Salamis with 800 warships against the Greeks 380 warships. The Greek leader was Themistocles and with his genius they easily won the battle.
This is the time where Athens flourished. It was known as the Golden Age.
Pericles leads Athens in this time and sets three goals for the city. 1. Strengthen Athenian Democracy, 2. Hold and Strengthen Athenian “Empire”, and 3. To Glorify Athens.
The law code was known as the 12 Table. These were Roman laws carved onto stone tablets. They confirmed the rights of all free citizens to be protected by law.
War breaks out between Athens and Sparta and will continue on and off. Athens had a better navy, but Sparta had a better army. During this time a plague broke out and killed 1/3 of the population, including Pericles.
This was a battle where Macedonians invade and defeat Greeks. This ends the Greek Independence
Alexander invades Persia and has his first victory at the Granicus River.He starts taking control of Persian cities 1 by 1.
Alexander took over Issus on his road to victory over Persia. This was one of his many stops of this victory.
Persia is defeated again in 331 BC by Alexander.
Constantine “restores” the empire by moving the capital to Byzantium but renamed it Constantinople.
Alexander conquers part of the Indus River at the battle at the Hydaspes River. He then wants to move into the Ganges River territory.
This was 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage. Carthage was a powerful Phoenician city-state
Scipio, a Roman general, defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama.
Julius Caesar declares himself the dictator for life. This also led to his assassination by senators including his friends Gaius Cassius, and Marcus Brutus.
This battle was because of civil wars between Octavian and Marc Antony. This leads to the end of the Roman Republic.
Octavian becomes the sole ruler of Rome. He is known as the first ever Emperor. He rules are unchallenged for a long time and no citizens have any rights.
Pax Romana is also known as Roman Peace. This was a time of peace and prosperity in Rome.
This was a fire that is said to have been set by Emperor Nero so he could blame the Christians. This was a time where there was a lot of tension in Rome.
Emperor Constantine created a law that legalized Christianity. This end the persecution of Christians.
The Nicene Creed was written. This was a statement of beliefs of the Christian Church.
Emperor Theodosius declares that Christianity is the official religion of the empire.
The Western Empire fell for three reasons, it had Internal problems, outside invasions, and the separation of Western Empire from Eastern Empire. The Western Empire couldn't support itself.