AP World History Timeline ( -600 BCE)

Events

End of Paleolithic Age

Approx. 8,000 BC

Old Stone Age- Hunting and Gathering
Nomadic People, used simple tools and weapons made of stone, bone, and wood, fairly egalitarian society
Animistic- cave paintings of animals

Neolithic Age

Approx. 8000 BCE - 5000 BCE

New Stone Age- Agricultural Revolution
Gradual shift to settled lifestyle, hunting and gathering to agriculture
Agricultural production and domestication of animals
Agriculture developed independently in different areas of the world
The Agricultural Revolution led to new technology, growth in population, interaction between communities, start of warfare, and women losing status

Nubia

3500 BCE - Approx. 2500 BCE

Emerged in the Upper Nile Valley
Traded with Egypt: gold, ivory, incense, cattle, animal skins, and slaves
Used irrigation fields
Heavily influenced by Egypt
Went into decline then came back as the kingdom of Kush

Sumer

3000 BCE - 1700 BCE

Located in Mesopotamia, one of the earliest civilizations (City-State, Sumerians)
Frequent warfare in early history, had over 3,000 gods
Ziggurat in the center of the city; invented the wheel, sail, and plow; used bronze, early maps, and astronomy

The Old Kingdom (Egypt)

2660 BCE - 2160 BCE

Theocratic government
Large building projects, most of the pyramids were built during this time period
Mummification for pharaohs, they were believed to be gods
The Old Kingdom collapsed with the split of Upper and Lower Egypt

Minoans

2600 BCE - 1250 BCE

Developed on the island of Crete, named after their legendary King Minos
Magnificent palaces decorated with frescoes
Bronze weapons and tools, traded olive oil
Collapsed suddenly, most likely due to invaders

Akkadian Empire

Approx. 2350 BC - Approx. 2150 BC

First empire in the world, Created by Sargon of Akkad
Spoke a Semitic language
Invasions, internal fighting, and famine led to the downfall of the empire

Indus River Civilization

2300 BCE - 1750 BCE

Established two sophisticated cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Language still undecipherable
Sophisticated civilization with a division of labor, jewelers, potters, architects, etc.
Had a sewage system, sophisticated technology and urban planning
Rural areas provided food for the urban cities
Environmental degradation is believed to the decline and eventual disappearance of the Harappan and Mohenjo-Daro civilizations

XIa Dynasty

Approx. 2150 BCE - Approx. 1750 BCE

Little is known about the Xia Dynasty since the early Chinese had no writing system
First dynasty in China

Middle Kingdom (Egypt)

2040 BCE - 1768 BCE

Mentuhotep II reunited Egypt
Art, religion, and literature renewed
Huge irrigation projects
Expanded Egypt's borders to access gold and other resources
Invaded by the Hyksos

Hittites

Approx. 1850 BC - Approx. 1150 BC

Occupied the Anatolian plateau in modern-day Turkey
1st to smelt iron in large quantities
Army mostly mounted soldiers and chariots
Had a rocky relationship with Egypt, signed a peace agreement to achieve peace

Babylonian Empire

Approx. 1800 BCE - Approx. 1600 BCE

Overtook the Sumerians and built Babylon, the capital on the Euphrates river
Hammurabi was the most famous leader with Hammurabi's Code (the first ever written set of laws)
After Hammurabi, his successors could not keep the large empire together and it began to shrink

Hyksos

Approx. 1750 BCE - 1521 BCE

Conquered and dominated Egypt between the 18th and 16th centuries BCE
Introduced the horse and chariot to Egypt, had tech superior to Egypt
Invented the well sweep, vertical loom, and composite bow
Egyptians learned of bronze working, the potter's wheel, use of arsenic copper, hump-backed cattle, fruit crops, and new planting and harvesting skills all from the Hyksos
The Hyksos burned temples, towns, and cities and imposed high taxes on the Egyptian people enforced by a strong military dominance
Overthrown by the Egyptians in 1521 BCE

Shang Dynasty

Approx. 1750 BCE - 1150 BCE

The Shang kings wielded tremendous economic and religious power
Most people were peasants, with the economy primarily based on agriculture
Artisans and merchants lived in towns across the empire
Polytheistic, ancestor veneration began
Developed a written script of pictographs

Kingdom of Kush

1700 BCE - Approx. 1 BCE

Ancient Nubian Kingdom, highly influenced by Egypt
Occupied Egypt for a period of time
Very important economically, exported ivory, gold, cattle, and slaves
Declined due to deforestation, conquered by the Axum 340 CE (**yes, the Kush Kingdom doesn't end until about 340 CE, I just didn't want to have the timeline go any further)

Mycenaean Civilization

1650 BCE - 1200 BCE

Cities throughout mainland Greece
Warlike and aggressive
Used bronze, traded perfumed oils, fine textiles, and pottery
Was not united, the King was a feudal ruler
Influence by Minoan culture, established settlements outside of mainland Greece

The New Kingdom (Egypt)

1570 BCE - 1070 BCE

Used new technology taken from the Hyksos to expand
Ramses the Great was pharaoh, Egypt declined after his death
Suffered repeated invasions from outsiders

Phoenicians

Approx. 1200 BC - 538 BC

Phoenicians were the leading sailors and traders of the ancient world, carried their culture and civilization wherever they traded
Had many colonies: Tyre, Tripoli, Carthage
Developed the phonetic alphabet, had highly developed art
Traded Phoenicia (a reddish-purple cloth), cedar, and ivory carvings
Polytheistic, would sacrifice animals and people in times of crisis
Became vassals of the Persian Empire in 538 BCE.

The Olmec

1200 BCE - 400 BCE

"Rubber People"
Primarily agricultural, grew corn, beans, squash, and avocados
Traded with other regions
Used jade and obsidian, made jewelry, sculptures, and religious symbols
Made enormous head carvings, up to 10 feet tall
Developed a calendar, a numbering system with 0, used glyphs
Played a ritual ball game (Pok-a-tok) and built large earthen pyramids

Zhou Dynasty

1046 BCE - Approx. 200 BCE

First 200 years of Zhou rule was China's first Golden Age
Mandate of Heaven
Began to use iron, invented the crossbow and iron sword, developed plows and improved irrigation systems, roads were improved allowing for more trade
By 400s BCE the Zhou kings had declines so much they had little power outside of their city-state

Chavin

1000 BCE - 200 BCE

Centered at Chavin de Huantar
Grew cotton, maize, potatoes, and quinoa, llamas were used
Developed irrigation systems, traded with others
Developed impressive techniques in gold, silver, and copper metallurgy
Were almost like a religious cult, had shamans and worshipped the jaguar

Assyrian Empire

665 BCE - 612 BCE

Capital: Nineveh, a city of learning
Skilled warriors, used battering rams, catapults, and helmets
Dealt with rebellions from conquered peoples, were conquered by the Medes and the Chaldeans.

2nd Babylonian Empire

612 BCE - 539 BCE

Created by the Chaldeans, centered in Babylon
Babylon became a center of learning and science (astronomy)
Defeated by the Persians in 539 BCE

People

Menes

3100 BCE - 3038 BCE

Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt in 3100 BCE, creating the first Egyptian Dynasty, ruled for 62 years, began big engineering in Egypt
Capital: Memphis

Hammurabi

1792 BC - 1750 BC

Ruled the Babylonian Empire
Created Hammurabi's Code, a set of laws engraved in stones all over the empire to help unify the region
"An eye for an eye"
Conquered many neighboring cities, expanding the empire

Tutankhamun

1345 BC - 1327 BC

"Boy King", King Tut, took the throne at age 9, died at 19 due to a head injury, is famous primarily because his tomb was found intact

Ramses II

Approx. 1309 BC - 1213 BC

Treated with much reverence
Had 200 wives and over 100 sons and about 60 daughters
Lived for 96 years, ruled for 67
Built more temples and statues than any other pharaoh

Nebuchadnezzar II

604 BC - 562 BC

Rebuilt Babylon with massive walls and a great palace with hanging gardens

Cleopatra

69 BCE - 30 BCE

Famous Egyptian Pharaoh
Had ties with Caesar, married Mark Antony