the Minoans were a strong seafaring people with a strong navy. they were possibly ancestors to the Greeks.
During these years the Mycenaean's dominated the Greek mainland. They ruled unmatched until the Dorians invaded.
The Minoans disappear probably due to earth quake which were quite common on the island
The group known as the Dorians invade Greece and they cause a period of very little art and literature this is known as the Greek dark age.
The first Olympic game are held.
The Spartans invade and conquered the Messenians
All people conquered by the Spartans were made into slaves by the Spartan government these people were used to farm and help the Spartan war effort.
these people revolted and almost beat the Spartans. this caused the Spartans to make their military stronger.
Draco develops a harsh law code that involves debt slavery.
Solon gets rid of debt slavery and makes four social classes.
The Etruscans take control of the Italian peninsula
Clesentinies splits Athens into ten groups depending on where you lived. He also gave more power to the ecclesia.
The Ionians revolt against the Persians
The battle of marathon took place on September 11 between 25,000 Persian and 11,000 Athenians. The Athenians were under the command of Miltiades. Miltiades wins and drives the Persians back the Persians comeback to try and take Athens but see its defended and leave.
In this time period the Athenians prosper with a lot of art and literature coming from this time period.
The roman laws or the twelve table were carved in tone this was so they could not be changed.
War breaks out between Athens and Sparta. Athens had the upper hand in the sea but Sparta was better on land. These wars happen on and off from 431 to 404 b.c with Athens coming out with the most problems like poverty. These wars set the stage for the downfall of the Greek civilization. But from this tragedy the Greek philosophers come out and start teaching their ways
The Macedonians invade Athens and Thebes.
Alexander the great invades Persia. This is the start of his 10 year long military campaign that spans from Greece to India.
alexander "unties" the Gordian knot which fulfilled the prophecy that said whoever unties the knot would become king of Asia. He unties the knot by cutting it in half.
This is a costly defeat for the Persians and alexander just had to charge at them to make them retreat
Alexander conquers the Indus river valley by winning the battle of the Hydaspes river.
During these years the Punic wars took place between Rome and cartage.
scipio defeats Hannibal by out smarting him and bringing the war to carthage. This battle was called the battle of Zama.
In 44 b.c Julius ceaser names himself emperor of the roman republic and makes many good reforms such as wider citizenship and more jobs for the poor
Octavian was Ceasers grand nephew and one of the member of the first triumvirate. The battle at Actium was between Marc Antony and Cleopatra vs. Octavian and the roman navy . it was a large naval battle that resulted in the end of the republic.
Pax romana was a time of peace in the roman empire with no civil wars or wars with other countries or invasions. This is considered romes peak.
Octavian become the sole military leader of Rome and makes Egypt a territory of the roman empire. rules in unchallenged from 27 b.c to 14 a.d and takes away power from the citizens.
The great fire of Rome takes place and Christians are blamed for it
During this time Christians in the roman empire were allowed to worship Jesus.
This ends their persecution.
The council of nicea is formed and they write the nicean creed that states the beliefs of the church.
Emperor Constantine moves the capital from Rome to Constantinople. this foreshadows the split of the empire into the roman and the byzantine empire.
The western empire falls due to three reasons. Internal problems such as population decline, inflation, and military turmoil. Second reason is Outside invasions pushed in by the Huns. Lastly separation from the wealthier eastern empire left the western empire defenseless.
Justinian was a wealthy noble man who made many reforms and rules with absolute power over the church and state affairs. makes a law code know as Justinian code. This code was used for 900 years and regulates all areas of life.
mobs rebel against Justinian and his empire he has 30,000 people killed in the hippodrome. This was all caused because of taxes.
A plague spreads across the empire and Justinian is blamed for it.
Emperor Leo the third bans all icons of Christianity and the clergy rebel
The great schism takes place where the roman catholic church splits. This makes the western church and the eastern church.
This capital falls to the ottoman Turks because of new advancements in weaponry like cannons and gunpowder. The city now becomes Istanbul.