Great Britain sent Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles to found a new colony on a small island at the tip of the Malay Peninsula
To stop any British movement into Vietnam, the French government decided to force the Vietnamese to accept French protection.
A growing Indian distrust of the British led to a revolt. Indians call this the First War of Independence
Great Britain annexed the west coastal states as the first British colony of the Gold Coast.
Filipinos mount an insurrection against the Americans in Manila in February 1899.
Latin Americans also increased their own industrialization. They built factories to produce textiles, foods, and construction materials.
A new kind of resistance emerged based on nationalism.
The concept of indirect rule was introduced in the Islamic State of Sokoto, in northern Nigeria.
Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Portugal divided up Africa.