The Cold War- the Militarization of American Life

Events

World War II

Approx. 1939 - Approx. 1945

Film Noir

Approx. 1940 - Approx. 1950

-The Film Noir was a time in United States entertainment in which black/white films hinted at the fears of post-war America
-(1949) 'The File on Thelma Jordan,' was released and the image of an 'independent woman,' becomes both feared and desired by women and men alike.

Venona Files Discovered

1943

-US Army intercepts transmissions between Moscow and the US and discovers that the soviets were:
- giving financial support to America's communist party
-had informants in wartime governmental agencies like the Office of War Information (OWI), the intelligence-gathering agency, and the office of Strategic Services (OSS).
- were obtaining U.S. atomic work in 1944
=The discovery caused a national Security concern (was released in 1995 though)

Serviceman's Readjustment Act (GI Bill) Passed

6/22/1944

-Illustrated approach to domestic Policy
-included immediate financial assistance for college and job-training programs for veterans of WWII.
-readjusted in 1952 to support veterans of the Korean War

US Extension to China

Approx. 1945 - Approx. 1948

-U.S. extends to China to help China resist Soviet's sphere of influence
-A formal alliance between US and China are solidified with U.S. assistance.

Frustration within US Borders

1945

Strikes in CT, PA, NY, and CA led to a standstill in many needed industries
-workers strike for higher wages, lower hours, and better working conditions

Presidency of Democrat Harry Truman

April 12, 1945 - January 20 1953

-The 33rd President of the United States
-Succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt and was succeeded by Dwight Eisenhower
-Served 2 Terms

Potsdam Conference

July 1945

-meeting between Stalin(USSR), Churchill(Britain), and Truman(U.S.) to discuss post-WWII
-Compromise was made for each side to take reparations from its own occupation zone, divide up Germany, and create the Council of Foreign Ministers
-The U.S. declared a new war weapon: The Atomic Bomb
-Stalin (USSR) starts Nuclear Weapon Program in response
-Conference marked the END od the Wartime alliance

Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

August 6, 1945 - August 9, 1945

-the USSR was fearful of U.S military power and their own future security
-world 'equilibrium' had been destroyed; U.S. Military power was GREATER than the rest of the world
-essentially ended WWII

End of WWII

August 15, 1945

-shortly after the Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
-Japanese Emperor Hirohito announced an unconditional surrender

U.S. Suspension of Lend-Lease Assistance to USSR

Approx. September 1945

-President Harry Truman had suspended the Lend-Lease Assistance/asked for a repayment of loans given to the USSR in WWII
-abrupt action was made to partially lessen Soviet power/sphere of influence in Eastern Europe(ATTEMPT FAILED)
-US stopped extending economic assistance to countries dominated by Moscow as USSR expansion was turning into "proof of communism," instead of "defense."
-example of growing Soviet-American friction with the Soviet Sphere of influence in Eastern Europe solidifying.

U.S. Government Funding of Atomic Energy

1946

-The Atomic Energy Commission begins to be governmentally funded
-The Commission links up with the Military through RAND (Research and Development)

The Marshall Plan in Effect

Approx. 1946 - Approx. 1951

-The Secretary of State, George Marshall's plan to strengthn economies of Western Europe to contain communism
-U.S. funded governments in Western Europe to design a broad program of postwar economic construction based on democracy
-stabalized many European economies and undermined the appeal of communist Parties
-the USSR responded by expanding their sphere of influence in Eastern Europe and refusing capitalism

Employment Act is Passed

1946

The Employment Act called for 'maximum' employment and that it is a company's responsibility for economic decision making, not the government.

Fear of Communism

Approx. 1946 - Approx. 1953

the General Fear of Communism amongst the general public of America was at its highest during this time period

The Cold War

Approx. January 1 1946 - Approx. December 30 1954

-A State of hostility from 1946 to 1954
-between the United States and the USSR
-concerning the spreadpolitical and economic influence around the world

Baruch Plan for Atomic Energy Proposed

Approx. June 15 1946

-disarmament plan that called for a disclosure by all UN member Nations of Nuclear Research in exchange for the Destruction of U.S Atomic weapons
-creation of an international authority to ensure obligingness
-would preserve US atomic monopoly for indefinite future
-Gromyko (USSR) proposed that U.S. Destruction of Atomic weapons should go first, and THEN halt atomic research and a disclosure of secrets to UN
- the Deadlock between USSR and U.S justified a stepped-up nuclear arms race

Movement of Containment

1947

-the term, 'containment,' was coined in the "Foreign Affairs," journal
- Mission of U.S. Foreign Policy was to contain Russian expansive tendencies
-The reaction of the United States was of Bipartisan support on the new National Security Policy.

FIrst Attorney General's List Released

Approx. 1947

-First act of Truman's loyalty program
-it was a list of organizations thought to be subversive and 'communist'

Labor-Management Relations Act Passed

1947

-Anti-communism sentiment in worker's unions allowed for the passing of the Labor-Management Relations Act (AKA Taft-Hurley Act).
-this act curtailed 'wildcat' strikes while strengthening the power of Union leaders to discipline their own members into sign sheets promising no 'communist' beliefs in companies.

"Hollywood Ten"

1947

-A time in which screenwriters, producers, and directors had been forced to go to court on behalf of political affiliations on being communist or not.
-The 'Hollywood Ten" split the entertainment industry for decades to come

Executive Order 9835

March 1947

-brought containment to the homefront
-the system of loyalty boards that would determine if any government employee posed as a 'security risk' to the United States.

Truman Doctrine

March 12, 1947

-In response to Truman's new focus on National Security and the 'fight against communism.'
-Truman asked/approved Congress for $400 million in military/economic assistance to Greece and Turkey to serve as evidence to other countries that the US is committed to aid any free peoples against communism
-extended US Security interests worldwide,increased U.S executive power, and made the US a global super power
-informal declaration of Cold War

Jackie Robinson Integrates Baseball

April 15, 1947

-Jackie Robins joins the Brooklyn Dodgers and breaks the color barrier in baseball for the United States

National Security Act

July 26, 1947

-Congress passed Law establishing the:
-Name Change of the Department of War to the Department of Defence (1949)
-Instituted the National Security Council (which planned Foreign Policy)
-Established a personal Military Branch for the Airforce
-Created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Dixiecrat Party is Formed

1948

the Dixiecrat Party is formed due to Truman's Support of African Americans
-caused discord in democratic ranks

America gains Anti-communist Alliances!

Approx. 1948 - Approx. 1951

US is gaining alliances from around the world to combat the USSR and communism in their attempts of worldwide containment.
(1948)
=The U.S. Solidify an alliance with South Africa after they created the legal system of 'apartheid.'
-The US was able to gain valuable resources of South Africa through this alliance
(1950)

=U.S. begin to directly aid Latin-American Governments in an attempt to gain their trust and support of democracy/republican styles of government control instead of communism/dictatorship.
(1951)
== Formal Peace Treaty is signed between U.S. and Japan concerning US Bases in Okinawa as well as U.S. troops
-(Result)- U.S. Bases in Okinawa, as well as U.S. troops, were permitted to increase NATO's military forces in Japan by justifying an anti-communist offense
-U.S get bases in Saudi Arabia and Morocco
-U.S. is able to form an anti-communist alliance with Japan
==US strategically links up with Australia and New Zealand through ANZUS collective Security Pact

Currency Reform amongst U.S. Allies

June 1948

-Currency Reform between the United States, Great Britain, and France was announced
-the Reform merged land gained in WWII into the Federal German Republic; dividing East and West Germany
-the Soviets responded by cutting off all access linking West Berlin and West Germany {FAILED}

NATO is formed

1949

-The United States, 10 European Nations, and Canada formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
-all members of the treaty pledged that an attack on one would be like an attack on all

Truman prosposed 'Fair Deal'

1949

The Housing Act of 1949

1949

-promised a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American family
-authorizied construction fo 810,000 public housing units
-provided Federal Funds for Urban Renewal zones

USSR Gain control of China

Approx. 1949

-Communist Forces Trump China
-U.S refuse to recognize new 'RED' China, led by Mao.

Soviets Blow up first!

September 1949

The Soviets explode an Atomic Bomb, marking the end of the U.S. Nuclear monopoly.
-The U.S. Develop a Nuclear Program based on nuclear fusion; also known as a Hydrogen Bomb, in response.

The Creation of the Subversive Activities Control Board

1950

The Subversive Activities Control Board (SACB) is created to investigate organizations allegedly controlled by communists

Social Security Act Passed

1950

-The Social Security Act was passed while the National Health Insurance plan had failed

McCarthyism

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1954

Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin accused that Most of Truman Administration were communist
-he created the 'McCarthy Committee:' a senate subcommittee on investigations

Outlawing segregation in Education

1950

-Racial Segregation in schools is outlawed
-Racial tensions loosen with government action FOR the colored

the "Great Fear"

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1952

-Truman's Final years as president
-the atmosphere of the United States tended to be anxious and full of public fear of communism
-caused by Foreign policy events of 1949 and 1950 (especially the Soviets nuclear tests)

Korean War Era

June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953

-between the Soviet north Korea, and Republican South Korea
-US desire was to have South Korea win, but to not capture anymore land and to just focus on containment of communism and not personal power

Dennis v. United States

1951

-found that people do not have a right under the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States to exercise free speech, publication and assembly, if that exercise was in furtherance of a conspiracy to overthrow the government.

Rosenburg Case

Approx. 1951 - Approx. 1953

-involved Julius and Ethel Rosenburg who were American communists. They were executed for passing nuclear weapons secrets to the USSR.
-the case became a key symbol of Cold War politics

McCarran-Walter Act

1952

The McCarran-Walter Act placed greater barriers to immigration from areas outside of Northern and Western Europe.
-an attempt of preventing communism from spreading to the United States through immigration
-under this Act, Gays/Lesbians were targetted more by the government for being (allegedly) 'more influenced' into believing into ideas like communism.

President Dwight Eisenhower

January 20 1952 - January 20 1961

-General Dwight Eisenhower succeeds Truman for President