EU Integration


OPEC oil crisis.


Large economic setback, price of oil quadrupled.

Turkish invasion of Cyprus.


The Turkish did not recognise the Cypriotic part of Cyprus and invaded the island in order to create a Turkish part.

Cold War

League of Nations

1919 - 1946

co-existence + integration = failed

End of the World War 2


Yalta Conference

February 1945



communist revolt



communist tried to take over the government, USSR broke its promise to state on their block

Truman Doctrine/Marshall Plan

Approx. 1947

US gives $$$$$ to Europe; Truman Doctrine was a reaction to an invasion to Greece by USSR; military assistance; Marshall Plan was focused on the econnomic european recovery;

Churchill speech "Iron curtain"




Germany was divided


Approx. 1949

Korean War

25 June 1950 - 27 July 1953

USA saw the resemblance in Europe so wanted to rearm FRD, but France could not agree. She proposed European army this led to Pleven Plan

Launch of the EDC

Approx. 1952

European Defence Community (EDC), the aim was to prevent the rise of another German army and to act as a force in the Korean War. However, there was no foreign policy or democratic legitimacy, so it failed. Federalists wanted to integrated politics, in 1953 they drafted EPC but it failed since states as France did not wanted to give up they sovereignty

Warsaw Pact


Warsaw Pact was the USSR response to the establishment of the NATO.

Fall of the Berlin Wall


While communism already started to fall apart in September in the Eastern Europe, the fall of the Berlin Wall marked the definite end of the communist Eastern Europe.

Reunification of Germany.

October 1990

Reunification of the formerly communist Eastern and capitalist Western part of Germany after the Cold War separated the two.

EU Integration



European Union Federation -> wanted a European constitution, it led to the Hague Congress. However, new goverments entered and federation was not considered now, but European Council came up out of it.

Altiero Spinelli


journalist imprisoned wrote manifesto in which he called for European Federation

The Hague Congress + CoE + ECHR + ECtHR

May 1948

The Congress led to the introduction of the Council of Europe. It was attended by representatives of most of the political parties of the non-communist states in Europe. However, the British were not interested in being part of a supranational organization that would compromise their national sovereignty.


Approx. 1949

Established by the French, it acted to prevent re-concentration and re-emergence of cartels within the German industry, so the German industrialists wanted to get rid of it.

Council of Europe

Approx. 1949

European organization that watches after the human rights and its implementation throughout Europe and the participating countries.

Schuman Plan: Coal and Steel

1950 - 1952

Plan for coal and steel cooperation by Robert Schuman and Jean Monnet for the administration of coal and to keep a check on Germany. Made for purpose of the peacekeeping. How? High Authority (supranational organization for 1st time in history) Signed 1952, Created in May two year before.

Adoption of European Convention on Human Rights

Approx. 1950

European Convention on Human Rights came into force by the works of the Council of Europe.

Pleven Plan


Plan launched by the French Prime Minister. It was a plan to create a European army consisting of 14 French divisions, 12 German, 11 Italian and 3 from the Benelux. Integrated command of the army.

Treaty of Paris

Approx. 1951

European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) for the management of coal and steel within Europe, 6 countries: Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, France, West Germany. USA- Adenauer: pushed the Germany to agree to a decentralization
ECSC = supranational organization

EDC+EPC fail


1953 and after, part of pleven plan, the idea was to give Germany military, France was against, instead they wanted European Army = EDC, but for that they needed more integration such as political EPC. But it failed since they did not want to gave sovereignty, even though France came up with the idea of EPC but they did not ratified it after all.

Western European Union established.

Approx. 1954

Treaty signed creating the Western European Union (WEU). Treaty of Brussels (Fr, GB, Benelux)

Messina Conference

Approx. 1955

Continued throughout 1956 in June. Conferences held to set up a Spaak Committee to consider the future of integration. It combined the ideas of Monnet on further sectoral integration with Beyen’s ideas of a general common market.
Sectoral integration - Monnet
Common Market - Beyen

at the meantime Hungary was invaded bu USSR and the Sues crisis

General Common Market.

Approx. 1955

Henri Beyen-Spaak launched a plan to create one common European Market, on behalf of the Benelux

Treaty of Rome

Approx. 1957

Establishment of the European Economic Community (EEC) -> "custums union" and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). EEC is a kind of predecessor of the European Union.

CAP system of common prices.


Agreed at Stresa Conference. Works through taxations and customs.

Establishment of the Customs Union.


The Customs Union was the establishment of the 1st 6 member states. The customs duties were between member states were reduced by 10% and the trade quotas increased by 20%.

accelarated integration

1960 - 1962

1962 = CET -C

UK applies for membership

1961 - 1963

Firstly, France makes it to hard for UK to join so they retract they application in 1961, they UK applies again and then France vetos it.

Fouchet negotiations begin.


Plan was to reach the integration in Europe through states, not through an intergovernmental organization such as the EC.

Veto by the De Gaulle on British membership. (1st crisis)


Also known as 1963 crisis, De Gaulle wanted to use the EEC as a platform for reassertion of French greatness in international affairs. According to him, the British would provide an alternative leadership for the four other member states, who were against French domination. It would be to France’s disadvantage. It was a setback in the process of integration, as the other member states reacted angrily to De Gaulle’s veto. De Gaulle had put a stop on further integration.

Fouchet plan: no supranational cooperation, but intergovernmental cooperation

Empty chair crisis. (2nd crisis)


He dissaproves budget plan about agricultural integration when states would lose their powers.
The French foreign minister was not present at the Council of Ministers in protest at a proposal from the Commission concerning the financing of the Community’s budget. De Gaulle boycotted the Council of Ministers meetings from June 1965 onwards. According to de Gaulle, primacy had to be given to the interests of national governments.

Luxembourg Compromise


De Gaulle wins!
no Community budget; no QMV but unanimity: veto for national interests by undermining commission's authority
Agreement to Disagree. There was an agreement not to proceed with the Commission’s proposals. There was no transition to qualified majority voting in the Council of Ministers and France made too many demands that they ought to be followed.

Merger Treaty enters into force.


Jean Rey is the first Commission president for all the communities (ECSC, EEC, Euratom) who were merged into the European Community (EC).

The Hague Summit: re-launching Europe.


De Gaulle is no longer here so there is a chance to European integration.
To restart reintegration, 3 conditions:
1. Completion:
2. Widening: UK, Ireland and Denmark join but since there is a crisis -> bad timing
3. Deepening: the economic and monetary union work but there is success with the intergovernmental European political Cooperation (EPC)
Deepening (EMU (monetary integration and EPC (political integration)), widening (more member states), completion (more generating of member states’ own resources). Intergovernmental in nature, established the European political cooperation (EPC).

"Dark Ages"

1970 - 1979

1971: collapse of IMS
1973: OPEC oil crisis: 4x oil price
STAGFLATION (reccession (not well economic - no employement) + inflation (high prices) -> states turned into protectionism

Start of the ‘snake in the tunnel’.


System of EC monetary co-ordination. Collapse of the exchanging currencies: dollars, pounds and other national currencies started to drift apart. The dollar would provide the ‘tunnel’ in which the European currencies would survive. All currencies had to stay within a reach of 2.25% and 4%. Tried to create more harmonization (pre-decessor of the EMU).

Enlargement of the EEC.


Denmark, the United Kingdom and Ireland joined the European Economic Community.

Paris Summit: new agreements on European levels.


Led to the creation of the European Council, the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and agree to direct elections to the European Parliament (EP).

Launch of the EMS.


Launch of the European Monetary System (EMS) at the Bremen European Council.

1st elections for the European Parliament.

June 1979

From now on, from the age of 18 years old, people who live in member states that are a part of the EEC can vote directly for potential members of the European Parliament.

Revitalisation of federalism


New wave of federalism

British budget Rebate

1980 - 1984

and beyond. Margaret Thatcher: I want my money back.
1. more important outside EC - high CET contribution
2. low direct taxes - high VAT contribution
3. small agricultural sector, low CAP subsidies
1984: Fontainebleau

Enlargement of the EC

January 1981

Greece joined the European Community. Democracy had to be restored and the economy had to be improved before entering the EC.

Genscher-Colombo Plan.

November 1981

They call for a new European Charter to replace the Treaties and to form a constitution for the European Communities. One of the first signs that European integration would leave the ‘Dark Ages’.



UK revolt against community since they spend too much on EU. So they don't have to spend so much. British budget rebate + community internal market/market to minimize not tariff barriers.

The revival of European Integration

1985 - 1992

74: European Council created
79: Direct elections EP
78: European monetary System with flexible snake it was tied to ECU, not dollar or avarge of european currancies like before. It is success comparing to the first emu
81: Greece joins
86: Portugal and Spain join

‘Schengen Agreement’ signed.

June 1985

The Schengen Area was signed by 10 member states eventually, in 1985 it was signed by five members of the EC. It mostly functions as a single country for international travel purposes, with a common visa policy. There is a principle of free travel within the Schengen Area.

Enlargement of the EC.

January 1986

Spain and Portugal joined the European Economic Community.

Signing of the Single European Act.

February 1986

All member states had to hand in a plan to the European Commission for the accomplishment of the free accessible market within the EEC. Enters into force in July 1987. It allowed them to develop tech innovation, since US and Japan dominated the market. It reduced non tariff bariers so that EU became stronger and could compete, not to be fragmented and weak. Manufacters/industrialist/ also wanted single european market, they seeing that other world powers dominated the capitalist world market they pushed their own goverments to sign single european market, they agreed on it upon ERTI (european round table industrialists).

Single European Act

  1. Completion Single Market (White Paper): removal trade barriers (capital, services, VAT)
  2. led to SEA also known as 1992 programme, institutional reform, QWV in CoM > legislative power EP; Commission:

*completion common market to compete with US and Japan
*supported by Eurapean Rountable of Industrialists
*QMV for single market
*more power in EP in QMV areas
*Delores' Commission played a big role in promoting the single market project
*SEA relaunched European Integration

Application of Turkey for EC membership.

April 1987

After Association Agreements signed with Turkey, the country now fully applied for EEC membership. To this day, Turkey is still not part of the EU.

Delors 3 stages plan

  • at the meantime - the collapse of communism, it gives rise to the queations as such how to deal with eastern european countries, what to do with Germany?

Delors Report by Jacques Delors, President of the European Commission.

June 1989

Delors Report on monetary union, the first plan to create a European Monetary Union. It was accepted at the Madrid European Council. This council also emphasized the importance of developing social policies alongside development of the single market and monetary union, and declares a commitment to developing environmental policies.

Launch of the EMU.

July 1990

Stage 1 of the EMU (European Monetary Union) enters into force.

Application of Cyprus and Malta for EC membership.

July 1990



1st conference on EMU; 2nd on political union (former communist entities)

Application of Sweden for EC membership.

July 1991

After TEU in Maastricht Recession in Germany


West treated East as equal so currency was 1:1, what made products in the East too expensive -> recession in Germany -> recession in Europe

Next step: monetary union: Delores Report with 3 stages to achieve it by 1999
IGC 1: monetary union
1989 fall of communism and looming reunification in Germany
IGC 2: political union, what to do with Germany?
2 of them led to Maastricht Treaty

At Maastricht
Three Pillars: supranational European Community, and intergovernmental CFSP, and JHA
European citizenship
extending co-desision procedure - more powers to EP
Subsidiarity Principle

Signing of the Maastricht Treaty or TEU establishing the EU.

February 1992

SUCCESS! + 3 pillars structure
The Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992 established the current European Union (EU) by enacting the Treaty on European Union (TEU). 3 pillar system established: consisting of European Communities, the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC). These would represent the community integration method and the intergovernmental cooperation method. The TEU focuses on more integration and cooperation between the member states.

Resulted in further cooperation: single currency? less economic trade barriers as tariffs,

Dan Fr


Austria Finland Sweden


IGC Enlargement


Treaty of Amsterdam


very modest, countries do not want to face a consequence of a European integration, even though the idea was likeable. No large changes. Only changes considering QMV (Qualified Majority Voting) in the areas of research programmes and compensatory aid for the imports of raw materials. And new areas for QMV included: countering fraud, encouraging customs co-operation, collating statistics and laying down rules for the free movement of personal data.

Treaty of Nice

December 2000

Institutional reforms -> triple QMV. Treaty strengthened the power of the President of the Commission and provided every member state with 1 Commissioner from 2005 onwards.
Extension of co-decision procedure and change in allocation of seats in the EP.
Extension of QMV into 30 new areas but retained veto in important areas, e.g. social policy etc.
Treaty of Nice signed and it proclaimed the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.

Laehen Declaration of the Future of the Europe


Want to make European constitution which is an attempt to revive European integration but it FAILS
heads of state sign the treaty in 2004, they hoped that it would bring an end to INTERGOVERMENTAL PERIOD

Rejection of treaty on the Constitution by FR/NL



Unpopular domestic politics + fear of European Federation

55% of the voters voted against a European Constitutional Treaty. The outcome was significant as France had always been at the heart of Europe and driving its integration forwards. The unpopularity of the Chirac presidency and the state of the French economy contributed to the bad outcome.

62% of the voters voted against a European Constitutional Treaty. Most people, including political parties, saw the possible European Constitution as a threat towards their national sovereignty. They also considered the EU constitution as a kind of weapon to turn the EU into a supranational bureaucratic super-state. People were afraid that Eastern workers will fill up their jobs and the government gave no response upon that.

results in start of EUROSCEPTISIM

Rome & Bul


leads to Lisbon Treaty

Lisbon Treaty


1st president EU Council "mr. Europe"
1st high representatives of foreign affairs
EP election record law

nobel peace prize


Cameron offers referendum


Refugee crisis


Brexit vote

23 June 2016

EMU preparation for single currency


1992 - 2002

Preparation starts


EMU starts


Physical Euro coins and money




Greece fuck it up, goes into the debt