General: Competition between Western states (Portugal, Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Ottoman Empire, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway, and the United States) for control/colonization/annexation of African territories.
Began with the Berlin Conference in 1884-5 which declared the Congo River Basin as a neutral zone that all European states could conduct trade in.
Encyclopedia Brittanica. "Berlin West Africa Conference." Accessed February 13, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/event/Berlin-West-Africa-Conference