The History of the Internet

Events

US defense budget funds first digital computer

1946

The US defense budget funded the first American electronic digital computer and subsidised the technical advance of the US computer industry .

First social interaction enabled by networking discussed

1962

J.C.R. Licklider of MIT wrote a series of memos discussing his “Galactic Network” concept, the first ever recorded description of social interaction enabled through networking.

RAND proposal was made public.

1964

RAND staffer, Paul Baran, made the RAND proposal public.

First wide-area computer network

1965

Lawrence G. Roberts of MIT connected the TX-2 computer in Massachusetts to the Q-32 in California with a low speed dial-up telephone line creating the first wide-area computer network ever built.

Computer network and ARPANET created

1966

Lawrence G. Roberts, who worked with DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) developed the concepts of computer-network and the ARPANET.

First test network with packet-switching network

1968

The National Physical Laboratory in Great Britain set up the first test network on the principles of a decentralized, blastproof, packet-switching network.

ARPANET brought online

1969

The Internet, then known as ARPANET, was brought online under a contract let by the renamed Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).

First node installed

1969

The first node, a high-speed computer, was installed in UCLA.

Network Control Protocol created

1970

The Network Working Group (NWG) finished the initial ARPANET Host-to-Host protocol, called the Network Control Protocol (NCP).

Email created

1972

Raymond Samuel Tomlinson (computer programmer) introduces his invention of network mail (email).

Ethernet technology created

1973

Ethernet technology was created, the dominant network technology, by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox PARC.

Transmission Control Protocol created

1979

Vinton Cerf (computer scientist) of DARPA developed Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) a way for all of the computers on all of the world’s mini-networks to communicate with one another.

First academic computer network created

1981

Ira Fuchs and Greyson Freeman devised the first academic computer network to connect all over the world, BITNET.

IP adopted

1985

IP was adopted for its internal network of computers.

ARPANET expired

1989

APRANET formally expired.

Internet's military legacy terminated

1990

The Internet’s military legacy was terminated when ARPANET handed over control of the public internet backbone to the National Science Foundation.

User-friendly interface for Internet created

1991

The first user-friendly (easy to navigate) interface to the Internet was created by researchers at the University of Minnesota.

World Wide Web created

1991

A computer programmer, Tim Berners-Lee, introduced the World Wide Web.

Commercial use of Internet ban lifted

1992

The ban of commercial use of the Internet was lifted by Congress.

First graphical Internet browser

1993

The breakthrough first graphical browser was created by Marc Andreessen of National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and his team.