The kirtle falls into three categories. The first two include those with buttons and those with lace. These were sometimes gowns to be worn over an undergarment and then there were those that had short sleeves.
Born Ana Nzinga Mbande this queen of Ndongo and Matamba fought against colonization by the Portuguese. During the 17th century the Central African coast was under threat of colonization. Through her willingness to adapt to the changes around her she made her kingdom into a fearsome commercial state that was equal with the Portuguese. After her brother, the king, committed suicide she reentered negotiations with the Portuguese and was betrayed by them and made to flea from Ndongo. She fled to Matamba where she became the queen after capturing their former queen and routing her army. To build up more forces for herself she took in runaway slaves and Portuguese trained African soldiers. Nzinga allied with the Dutch, but even their combined forces were not enough to drive out the Portuguese. After this failed attempt Nzinga turned her attention to making Matamba a formidable trading power. By the time of her death Matamba was on equal footing with the Portuguese.
Anthony Johnson was an Angolan who achieved freedom in the Virginian colony. He was caught by an enemy tribe and sold to Arab slave traders, from which he eventually was sold as an indentured servant to the Virginia Company. He gained his freedom in 1635 after the Powhatan (A group of Native Americans in Virginia) killed all but five of the men on the plantation where Johnson had worked. Johnson gained 250 acres of land under the headright system by buying the contracts of indentured servants (one of which was his son). Johnson sued Robert Parker for the return of John Casor, who was named the first slave in the thirteen colonies. He became one of the first slave owners and developed a successful tobacco farmer.
The Mayflower Compact was the first written framework of what is now the United States of America. The document was made to prevent dispute between Puritans and Pilgrim's aboard the ship.
Charles II younger years were spent in hiding as Parliament would not allow him to be crowned king. Upon being reenstated to the thrown Charles agreed to honor his father's ruling on the Petition of Rights which put limits on the monarchy. He followed this ruling, but he believed that he had divine right as his father had. Charles II however did not act upon this thought and simply indulged in hedonism. In 1670 he signed a treaty with Louis XVI to convert to Catholocism and support France's war against the Dutch, which allowed him more freedom. He did not follow up on this promise until his deathbed after anti-Catholic rage had spread.
The English Civil War is the name given to the war that took place in the British Isles between the monarchy of Charles I (and his son Charles II) and Parliamentaries in England, Covenanters in Scotland, and Confederates in Ireland. The wars lasted all throughout the 40s.
The first Anglo-Dutch war began during a tense time after the 1651 Navigation Act which barred Dutch involvement in English sea trade. In 1652 an incident happened between the Dutch under Adm. Maarten Tromp which led the English to declare war on the Dutch. The Dutch managed to snatch another victory at Dungeness, but for the most part the English took the victory and then untimately won when Tromp was killed. The war was finally ended by the Treaty of Westminster.
The commercial rivalry between the Dutch and England led to another war in 1665. The English captured Amsterdam and then declared war on the Dutch. Most of the battles during this war were won by the Dutch althought the English won at Lowestoft. The war was ended by the Treaty of Breda.
The fire began in the house of King Charles II's baker on Pudding Lane near the London Bridge. It spread to the Thames where warehouses filled with combustibles cause the fire to become an inferno. Over four-fifths of London was destroyed in the fire.
England began to enforce stricter rules on the African slaves in the colonies. Slaves were not allowed to leave plantations without a pass and they were not allowed to leave on Sundays. Enslaved Africans were not allowed to carry a weapon or any kind of signalling device. The punishment enstated for the murder of a slave by a master was 15 pounds.
The third Anglo-Dutch war formed a part of the general European war.
The Bill of Rights contains some basic tenants of the right that the authors felt were necessary for citizens to have including: Freedom from royal interference with the law (the Sovereign was forbidden to establish his own courts or to act as a judge himself), freedom from taxation by royal prerogative, without agreement by Parliament, freedom to petition the king, freedom from a peace-time standing army, without agreement by Parliament, freedom [for Protestants] to have arms for defense, as allowed by law, freedom to elect members of Parliament without interference from the Sovereign, the freedom of speech in Parliament, in that proceedings in Parliament were not to be questioned in the courts or in any body outside Parliament itself (the basis of modern parliamentary privilege), freedom from cruel and unusual punishments, and excessive bail, freedom from fines and forfeitures withou trial. Actions of James I were mentioned as illegal. The line of succesion was given as well as the necessity of the monarch consulting Parliament. These laws among others are a part of basic English governance.
In 1696 The Royal African Company lost it's monopoly on the slave trade. This had terrible ramifications as it caused colonists to become more involved in slave trading for profit. Shortly after this England enforced an act that set rules for forcible entry and required bonds for certain goods (which slaves were considered to be).
This was the fashionable guide to use for women in matters of the household. This book covered from illness remedies to where to find a pig to use for dinner.