-France is humiliated on land by Prussia and on sea by Britain (both Mediterranean&Atlantic).
- Lost territories in North America and India.
-Left with a huge debt
-Improve accounting procedures
-Reduce the amount of government officials
-Restrict the guilds
-Reintroduce free trade of grain
-Introduce a asingle tax on land
The Paris Parlement refused all his reforms, so he was dismissed.
-Costly build their Navy up from scratch, as it was destroyed in the Seven Years' War
-The cost of helping American colonists - 1006 mil. livres.
-Won the war, but no territorial gains.
-Secured loans to finance wars (520 mil. livres).
-Published Compte rendu (Crown's balance) for which the public liked him. The account omitted the war costs so it showed a surplus.
-Abolished many of the venal offices.
Dismissed because he wanted to become the King's secret council (but was a Protestant).
-Replace capitation (tax on people)&vingtième (5% income tax) with a single land tax on all Estates
-Abandoning controls on the grain trade and abolishing internal customs barriers, which prevented trade = Fiscal stimulus
-Restoring national confidence for new loans, through an image of national unity
Due to wide criticism, dismissed.
-Calonne informs Louis of the dismal financial situation.
-Deficit - 112 mil. livres
144 princes, parlement members and bishops met in the Palace of Versailles
Rejected Calonne's proposals:
-Didn't want to give up privileges
-Some insisted on Estates-General
Seen as more cooperative by the Assembly of Notables
-Calonne's land tax
-End of venal offices
-New central Treasury
-Codified, printable laws
-Army reform (less expensive&more efficient)
Aristocratic revolt due to the Paris Parlement exile - riots in Parlement cities (e.g. Rennes, Grenoble) and unauthorised assemblies to discuss parlement support
Clergy also supports the Parlement - only pays 1/4 of don gratuit
Louis agrees to call the Estates-General
-Parlement exiled because they refused to pass Brienne's reforms, demanding an Estates-General
-Returned as the King is forced to concede.
-Rise in the price of food - lower demand for manufactured goods
= Rise in the power of bread
Allows for cheaper imports into France, which later leads to worsening economic conditions
In comparison to 1726
-Formed 50% of all industrial production
-Led to further unemployment
-Adverse effects of the Eden Treaty - cheap imports
-Ordinary people blamed landowners for the food shortages - accused them of hoarding
- Led to the politicisation of the 3rd Estate