Important Historical Dates of Ancient Rome


Human Settlement Palaeolithic

40,000 BCE - 10,000 BCE

Neolithic Revolution

6000 BCE

settlers from Anatolia and Levant; agriculture and economic activity, land ownership, social and political status

Indo- European Migrations

4000 BCE - 1000 BCE

arrived in Italy in waves between 1300-1100 BCE

Bronze Age Begins

2500 BCE

probably through trade contacts with Central Europe

Iron Age Italy

1000 BCE - 750 BCE

Villanovan Culture predominant throughout most of Italy


814 BCE

Punic-speaking colonists from Tyre. Settled in N. Africa and founded Carthage. Govern'd by mixed democracy/ mercantile oligarchy. developed trade networks with Sicily, N and W Africa, S and E Spain

Founding of Rome by Romulus

753 BCE - 717 BCE

Mythic literation

Rome Founded

753 BCE

Rome (Traditionally) Founded

Numa Pompilius

716 BCE - 674 BCE

a Sabine (Mythic literation)

Etruscan Veii Conflict

700 BCE

over control of Tiber Crossing

Tulius Hostilius

673 BCE - 642 BCE

(Mythic literation)

Reign of Ancus Marcius

641 BCE - 617 BCE

Historical figure

Reign of Tarquinius Priscus

616 BCE - 578 BCE

First Etruscan King of Rome

Reign of Servius Tullus

578 BCE - 534 BCE

reform of Roman constitution

Reign of Tarquinius Superbus

534 BCE - 510 BCE

Last King of Rome; Also Etruscan

The End of the Monarchy

510 BCE

Expulsion of Tarquins; Est. of Republic

510 BCE

Republican Government

509 BCE - 287 BCE

Government by 1. Elected Magistrates. 2. Senate. 3. Assemblies
Mixed constitution (ex. Monarchic, Oligarchic, and democratic elements)

The Pyrgi Tablets

500 BCE

Latin League Conflict

494 BCE

Lake Regulus and the Cassian Treaty

The Plebeian Response

494 BCE

Plebeians refused to enlist when Rome threatened by enemies - demanded alterations to credit laws

The Struggle of The Orders

494 BCE - 287 BCE

Political struggle between Patricians and Plebeians over inequalities in Rep. Government.
Plebeians barred from public office and senate, intermarriage with Patricians

Twelve Tables

450 BCE

Inscribed stones pertaning the Law - provided for the Plabieans

Roman Struggle for Survival

400 BCE

constant pressure from Aequi, Volsci, and Samnites - struggle with Etruscan Veii over control of Tiber Crossing - Power struggle for control over Latin League (Confederation of 30 Latin communities in Latium)

Rome Captures Veii

396 BCE

land is absorbed as ager Romanus and distributed to the landless - Roman territory doubles - increase in soldiers (can only be a soldier if you own land)

Rome Dominates the Latin League

390 BCE - 340 BCE

Rome as Hegemon of the Latin League (Hegemon- when all independent 30 states in crises would come together- Rome was the Hegemon, the head)

The Gallic Sack

390 BCE

Push for the Consulship

371 BCE - 367 BCE

Rome gover'ed variously be elected magistrates, military tribunes (10)- 1st and 4th c. BCE, Dictators.
Debt and arbitrary treatment by patrician magistrates still problem. Plebeians demand access to consulship - little success.

End of the Struggle of the Orders

367 BCE - 287 BCE

Plebeians assert more influence over policy - 287 BCE pass the Lex Hortensia - provided that motions passed in the Plebeian assembly (plebiscita) had the effect of a law (lex) and was binding on all citexens, not just plebeians

Lex Licinia - Sextia

367 BCE

Plebeians have the right to the consulship - change in the definition of noble, from based on birth to the achievement of high public office (senate, magistrate) (novus homo- "new man")

The 1st Semite War

343 BCE - 341 BCE

Latin League demands equality

340 BCE

Latin League demands a single state with equality between Latins and Romans; Rome refuses

1st Latin War

340 BCE - 338 BCE

Rome defeats the Latin League; Cassian Treaty replaced by a series of separate bi-latera agreements; Rome in control of Latium

2nd Samnite War

326 BCE - 304 BCE

3rd Samnite War

298 BCE - 290 BCE

The Po Valley

283 BCE

Annexed by Rome and declared ager publicus (public Land)

The War with the Pyrrhus of Epirus over Tarentum

280 BCE - 275 BCE

Magna Graecia under Roman Hegemony

270 BCE

Rome brought into conflict with other expanding powers

1st Punic War

264 BC - 241 BC

The Hellenistic World

230 BCE

2nd Punic War

218 bc - 202 bc

1st Macedonian War

214 BC - 205 BC

Treaty between Rome and the Aeolian League

212 BCE - 11 BCE

2nd Macedonian War

200 BC - 196 BC


200 BCE - 118 BCE

Greek military commander captured in 168 BCE; wrote Roman Histories - eye witness to events from ca. 168 BCE on.

3rd Macedonian War

171 BCE - 167 BCE

Rome defeats Perseus of Macedon; Macedon divides into four republics

4th Macedonian War

150 BCE - 148 BCE

Andriscus defeated by Q. Caecilus Metelleus; Macedon absorbed as a Roman province

3rd Punic War

148 BCE - 146 BCE

M. Terrentius Varro

116 BCE - 27 BCE

supported Caesar; Organized Rome's 1st public library (45 BCE); wrote Human and Divine Antiquities in 41 books. De Lingua Latina

Marcus Tullius Cicero

106 BCE - 43 BCE

9 political speeches, 4 collections of private letters, 8 works on rhetoric and philosophy

Cornelius Nepos

100 BCE - 25 CE

First Latin biographer who survives; wrote On Famous Men

Gaius Sallustius Crispus - aka Sallust

86 BCE - 35 BCE

tribune in 52 BCE; expelled from the senate in 50 BCE; commanded legion for Caesar in 49 BCE; Praetor in 46 BCE; Governor of Africa; Tried for extortion; retired and wrote Bellum Catilinae and Bellum Jugurthum


80 BCE - 15 BCE

De Architectura


63 BCE - 24 Ce

Greek Geographer living in Rome - The Geography

Dionysius of Halicarnassus

60 BCE - 7 BCE

Greek writer living in Rome after 31 BCE; wrote on Roman antiquities - covers the mythical foundations of Rome in the Furst Punic War (264-241 BCE)

Titus Livius

59 BCE - 17 CE

History of Rome from its foundation to 9 BCE in 142 books (only 1-10 and 21-45 survive)

Pliny the Elder

23 AD - 79 AD

Natural Philosopher; wrote natural History


37 CE - 100 CE

Judaean military commander let troops against the Romans (66-70 CE) and was captured and taken hostage to Rome; Wrote the Jewish Wars (75 CE)

Sextus Julius Frontinus

40 CE - 103 Ce

De Aquaeductu; Strategemata (lost)


46 CE - 120 CE

wrote Parallel Lives; ends with the life of M. Antonius (30 BCE)

Cornelius Tacitus

56 CE - 117 CE

105 CE - Historiae (Histories) - covers Roman affairs from the year of the Four Emperors down to the assassination of Domitian (96)

Pliny the Younger

61 CE - 112 CE

Series of letters in 10 books; 1-9 contain personal and business correspondence/ Book 10 contains letters between Pliny and Trajan

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus

70 CE - 111 CE

Equestrian; Governor of Bithynia (110 CE); Wrote Lives of the Caesars

Cassius Dio

164 CE - 235 CE

Greek senator, Consul by 204 BCE; Roman History (80 volumes) covering the foundation myth down to 229 CE

Eusebius of Caesarea

263 CE - 339 CE

Wrote Life of Constantine, Life of Pamphilus, On the Martyrs

Ammianus Marcellinus

330 CE - 391 CE

Continued the work of Tacitus; Covered events from 96 CE to 378 Ce; Eye witness to later events