Doll Test study was conducted, with 3 articles published, in the 1940s.
Overturned Plessy V. Ferguson ruling of "separate but equal", declaring racial segregation of public school illegal
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on December 1, 1955. Boycott lasted 381 days.
In 1957 the NAACP organized 9 black students in Little Rock, Arkansas to enroll in Little Rock Central High school. They were physically blocked from entering by everyday white folk and then by the Arkansas National Guard.
Utter Failure. 3000 anti-castro cuban exiles land at the Bay of Pigs. Expected pervasive anti-castro sentiment, that was not present also had not realized the scale of the bay, more troops were required. Kennedy took fault for the failed attack.
Involving the admission of James Meredith into the University of Mississippi (after much effort...?), a riot broke out after Meredith was escorted by US marshals to a secret location that protesters knew was in the university. The riot involved armed protesters and non-armed US marshals. 2 journalists were killed, many marshals wounded. By the morning army troops were sent in and controlled the situation.
A movement organized in early 1963 by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the integration efforts of African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama, one of the most racially divided cities (legally and culturally). Started with a boycott of private businesses and government spaces (to pressure against discrimination in hiring and public accomodations) --> Then when SCLC got involved they started "project C" of direct action sit-ins and mass arrests --> Defying the court injunction prohibiting protest through mass protest and arrest --> MLK arrested --> mobilizing elementary, highschool and college students
After Bull Connor obtained a court injunction prohibiting protests. SCLC does not bail him out until enough national media attention reaches Birmingham. The Letter is in response to 8 moderate white clergyman who accused King of agitating local residents and not giving the new mayor an opportunity to respond.
LBJ begins his presidency on this day
In Bloom and Breines. Post-Hajj, In the last period of his life. Malcolm X was assassinated in 1965.