America in the 1960s


Brown V. Board of Education, US District Court in Topeka

June, 1951

Mamie and Kenneth Clark Testify in Briggs v. Elliot, with Doll Test Study


Doll Test study was conducted, with 3 articles published, in the 1940s.

Brown V. Board of Education, Supreme Court Ruling

May 17, 1954

Overturned Plessy V. Ferguson ruling of "separate but equal", declaring racial segregation of public school illegal

Montgomery Bus Boycott

December 5, 1955 - December 20, 1956

Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on December 1, 1955. Boycott lasted 381 days.

The Little Rock Nine

September 1, 1957 - September 9, 1957

In 1957 the NAACP organized 9 black students in Little Rock, Arkansas to enroll in Little Rock Central High school. They were physically blocked from entering by everyday white folk and then by the Arkansas National Guard.

The Kitchen Debate

July 24, 1959

Bay of Pigs Invasion

April 17, 1961

Utter Failure. 3000 anti-castro cuban exiles land at the Bay of Pigs. Expected pervasive anti-castro sentiment, that was not present also had not realized the scale of the bay, more troops were required. Kennedy took fault for the failed attack.

The Ole Miss Riot and James Meredith

September 30, 1962 - October 1, 1962

Involving the admission of James Meredith into the University of Mississippi (after much effort...?), a riot broke out after Meredith was escorted by US marshals to a secret location that protesters knew was in the university. The riot involved armed protesters and non-armed US marshals. 2 journalists were killed, many marshals wounded. By the morning army troops were sent in and controlled the situation.

The Birmingham Campaign

April 3, 1963 - May 10, 1963

A movement organized in early 1963 by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the integration efforts of African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama, one of the most racially divided cities (legally and culturally). Started with a boycott of private businesses and government spaces (to pressure against discrimination in hiring and public accomodations) --> Then when SCLC got involved they started "project C" of direct action sit-ins and mass arrests --> Defying the court injunction prohibiting protest through mass protest and arrest --> MLK arrested --> mobilizing elementary, highschool and college students

MLK arrested and writes "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

April 12, 1963 - April 20, 1963

After Bull Connor obtained a court injunction prohibiting protests. SCLC does not bail him out until enough national media attention reaches Birmingham. The Letter is in response to 8 moderate white clergyman who accused King of agitating local residents and not giving the new mayor an opportunity to respond.

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

August 28, 1963
  • Where King delivered his infamous "I have a Dream" speech

JFK assassination

November 22, 1963

LBJ begins his presidency on this day

The Ballot or the Bullet Speech

Approx. April 1964

In Bloom and Breines. Post-Hajj, In the last period of his life. Malcolm X was assassinated in 1965.

Civil Rights Act, 1964

July 2, 1964
  • prohibited racial discrimination in employment and education
  • ending segregation in all public accommodations and most private businesses

The War on Poverty: Creation of Office of Economic Opportunity

August 20, 1964

Malcolm X Assassination

February 21, 1965

Watts Riots of 1965 (neighbourhood in Los Angeles)

August 11, 1965 - August 16, 1965

MLK assassination

April 4, 1968