AP European History Timeline


Representative Assemblies

1250 - 1450

Meetings of lords and wealthy urban residents that flourished in many European countries.

Little Ice Age

1300 - 1450

unusual number of storms brought torrential rains, ruining the weat, oat and hay crops. Poor harvests

Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1376

The 7 popes resided in Avignon rather than in Rome. Bad for the prestige of the papacy.

Great Famine

1315 - 1322

A terrible famine that hit much of Europe after a period of climate change. Interpreted as the "seven lean years" that affected Egypt. Caused inflation and mal-nutrition.

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

A war between France and England. Causes: Disagreement over rights of land, disputes over the succession to the French throne. Began with a series of sea raids on English coastal towns. England was highly successful in the start with their good bowmen, but it wasn't very accurate. English won because Henry V married the French Daughter and they created a peace treaty.

Black Death

1348 - 1350

plague that struck Europe and killed almost 1/3 of Europe's population. The disease spread fast with almost 500 people dying daily in Vienna. Ships brought rats that carried the disease around to different countries, infecting people from all around. Brought economic inflation, and people would religiously take it out on themselves.



A massive uprising by French peasants protesting heavy taxation after the 100 years' war.

End of Babylonian Captivity


Pope Gregory XI brought the papal court back to Rome.

Great Schism

1378 - 1420

The division in church leadership, when there were 2, then 3 popes.

English Peasants' Revolt


Response to changing economic issues. Assault on tax collections, castles and manors sacked, Manorial records destroyed, many nobles murdered.


1400 - 1600

rebirth of the culture of classical antiquity in Italy. Economic and Political developmet in the cities in northern italy. Merchants gained political power. Political leaders admired the writes and artists and ofter asked for paintings, buy luxeries, and hire talents in a system of patronage.

Meeting at Constance

1414 - 1418

Objectives: Wipe out heresy, end schism, reform the church

Growth of Printing Press

1448 - 1552

Created by Guttenberg, The printing press made its way around Europe and allowed for millions of prints to be printed. Allowing books to easily be discussed with each other and for new things to spread. Also stilulated the literacy of the laypeople.

War of Roses

1455 - 1471

York and Lancaster contended for control of the Crown in a civil war, called this bc symbol of the Yorkists was a White rose, and the symbol for Lancastrians was a red one. York won under Edward IV

Baroque Art

1600 - 1715

Emotional art of the reformation
big, complex

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

divided into 4 phases. faith of various places shifted Bohemia- Danish- Swedish- French

Rococo Art

1700 - 1800

noble art
ornamental, light, casual, decorative, light-hearted, fanciful

Neoclassical (Visual) Art

1750 - 1850

Art of revolution and enlightenment
firm, serious, structured


1790 - 1840


Marsiglio of Padua

1275 - 1342

Agreed with Occam. Wrote the Defensor Pacis. The church should be subordinate the state. Excommunicated for his radical ideas and condemned for heresy.


1276 - 1337

Led the way in use of realism.

William of Occam

1289 - 1347

Predated the Great Schism. Church and State should be seperate. All governmetns should have limited powers and be accountable for who they govern.


1300 - 1309

heavily taxed, Common people in Italian cities who resented their exclusion from power, used armed forces to take over the government.

Bridget of Sweden

1303 - 1373

A noblewoman who journeyed to Rome after her husband's death. Saw visions and gave advice to laypeople from these visions.


1304 - 1374

Ancient roman writers and artists had reached a level of perfection, the recovery of these texts would bring about a new golden age of intellectual achievement. Understand human nature.

Giovanni Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Described the course of the disease in the Decameron, identifying that the plague passed from person to person. "Almost no one cared for this neighbor... brother abandoning brother... fathers and mothers neglected their children"

John Wyclif

1330 - 1384

Went further than the conciliarists in his argument against the medieval church structure. Wrote that scripture alone should be the standard of Christian belief and that secular power had no foundation in the scriptures. First bibal translated into English.



people believed the plague was their punishment to god and punished themselves by wipping.


1350 - 1359

Sworn associations of free men in Italian cities led by merchant guilds that sought political end economic independence from local nobles.



Followers of John Wyclif that spread his ideas and made copies of the bible. Their leaching allowed women to preach.

Jan Hus

1373 - 1415

Built on Wyclif's ideas. Denied papal authority, called for translation of the bible into Czech, and declared indulgences useless. Tried, condemed, and burnt at the stake in 1415.

Filippo Brunelleschi

1377 - 1446

Built the dome one the cathedral of Florence

Thomas á Kempis

1380 - 1471

A dutch monk who wrote The Imitation of Christ.


1380 - 1415

Followers of Jan Hus, Defeated the combined armies of the pope and the emperor many times.


1386 - 1466

Revived the classical figure, with balance and self-awareness.

Cosmo de Medici

1389 - 1464


1400 - 1425

Voluntary lay groups organized by occupation, devoted preference, neighborhood, or charitable activity. Some specialized in praying for souls in purgatory, held dances to raise money to clean church buildings.

Leon Alberti

1404 - 1472

wrote novels, plays, legal treatises, invented codes for sending secret messages and how to decode them. Renaissance MAN!

Lorenzo Ghiberti

1415 - 1465

Designed the bronze doors on the Cathedral in Florence.


1415 - 1506

discovered the americas

Marsilio Ficino

1433 - 1499

Plato is a percursor to Christ.

Medici Family in Florence

1434 - 1737

Grand dukes of Florence, produced three popes, selected from policial skills, not piety.

Sforza Family

1447 - 1492

Ruled harshly and dominated Milan. A Republic.


1452 - 1498

Preached in Florence a number of fiery sermons that god would punish Italy for its moral vice and corrupt leadership. Became the new religious leader of the new florentine republic. passed laws against same-sex relations, adultery, and drunkenness. Excommunicated by the pope and burnt, the Medici fam back in power.

Pico Della Mirandola

1463 - 1494

Both Christian and classical texts taught that the universe was a hierarchy of beings of from god down throught spiritual beings to material beings, with humanity right in the middle.


1466 - 1536

Writer, Dutch Humanist. 2 fundamental themes in all books, education in the bible and classics in the means to form, the key to moral and intellectual improvement. And Renewal should be based on inner spirituality and personal morality


1469 - 1527

Most famous civil humanist, and best known political theorist. Governmening body in Florence. The prince.


1475 - 1564

Worked largely on commissions for patrons. David, and last Judgment.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Combined father's power and his own ruthlessness to build up a state of his own in Italy. Used ruthless tactics to keep power but fell apart.

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Wrote Utopia, as a revolutionary critique.

Baldassare Castiglione

1478 - 1529

Wrote the Courtier, an educated man should have a broad background in many academic subjects, should train body and mind. For people who seek to improve themselves and want to rise in hierarchy.

The Prince


Machiavelli wrote this to argue that the function of a ruler is to preserve order and security. Weakness only leads to disorder. Ruler should do what is necessary to make the population with him.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Denmark, Astronomer who collected tons of data, but never published it

Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

co-creator of the inductive method, in england

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

discovered 3 laws of planetary motion

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

pessimistic about human nature. wrote Leviathan. Humans are selfish in nature and violent. pro strong government. social contract: govt and people work together for the general well being.


1632 - 1677

accused of atheism and excommunicated
described orgins of religion in naturalistic terms
secularized Judaism

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Essay concerning human understanding in which he argued that humans have a blank page, personalities are shaped by experiments. rejected christine doctrine that sin perminetly flawed humans. Self-government.

Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

Proved the color spectrum was in light, not prism. formulated the gravitational law.


1689 - 1755

checks and balances. women are not inferior but should be dominated by men in domestic relations like fam and marriage. wrote spirit of laws. divided power into executive, judicial, and legislative


1694 - 1778

Attacked French Monarchy and church. admires the gov of great britian. free speach and religion.

Emilie du Chatelet

1708 - 1749

Trained in math and physics
lived w voltaire

Jean Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778

women were inferior, only here to please men, be domestic slaves. Wrote Discourse on the Moral Effects of Arts and Sciences: the process of civilization and enlightenment had corrupted human nature. social contract. Majority consent, democracy, people work better as a whole than individually.


1713 - 1784

imprisoned for his book. wrote the Encyclopedia, designed by secularized learning. Freedom of expression

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

limit government in economic affairs, letting self-interested individuals be successful makes nations successful. Urged great britian to abolished its mercantile system

Cesare Beccaria

1738 - 1794

Wrote on Crimes and Punishments, no torture, speed trial, no capital punishment, no unusual punishment, has to fit the crime

Monarchy Rule

Richard II of England

1377 - 1399

Met with the leaders of the English Peasants revolt, agreeing to allow peasants more freedom, tricking with with false promises, then crushed the uprising with terrible ferocity. The nobles then tried to issue surfdom again, but they werent successful.

Henry IV of England

1399 - 1413

aristocracy dominated his government and indulged in disruped violence, fighting each other, holden wealthy people for ransom

Henry V of England

1413 - 1422

Invaded France and defeated the French for their throne. Married the French king's daughter, but died unexpectedly in 1422

Pope Martin V

1417 - 1431

Dissolved the council, did nothing to reform the church.

Charles VII of France

1422 - 1461

Revived the monarchy from France. Began France's recovery after the black death and 100 years' war. Expelled English from French soil, reorganised royal council, increased influence to lawyers and bankers, strengthened royal financed, Created first permanent army.

Louis XI of France

1461 - 1483

Improved Charles's army to control the noble's separate malitia, and curb the urban independace.

Edward IV of England

1461 - 1483

This Yorkist established domestic tranquillity, defeated the Lancasters, and began to reconstruct the monarchy. Conducted foreign policy on the basis of diplomacy, avoiding expensive wars.

Ferdinand and Isabella

1474 - 1516

pursued a common foreign policy. curbed aristocratic power by excliding nobles from power.

Charles VIII of France

1483 - 1498

Invaded Italy in 1494. Married and get the duchy of Brittany

Richard III of England

1483 - 1485

worked to restore the prestige of the royals, and crush the power of the nobility, and establish order and law. All used Machiavelli methods, ruthlessness, efficiency, and secrecy

Henry VII of England

1485 - 1509

worked to restore the prestige of the royals, and crush the power of the nobility, and establish order and law. All used Machiavelli methods, ruthlessness, efficiency, and secrecy

Pope Alexander VI

1492 - 1503

One of the most ruthless popes.

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Hired Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Vatican's Sistine Chaple in 1508.

James I of England

1603 - 1625

Henry XIV

1643 - 1715

sun king. god established rulers as mini gods

Frederick II

1713 - 1740

gave philosophers places in court
commanded loyalty of the military
had lots of military power
elieved in merit rather than privelage of birth
allowed catholics and jews to settle in his lutheran counrty, willing to build mosques for turks

Charles III of Spain

1759 - 1788

reform-minded. adopted the intendant system.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Aimed to extend his territories at the expense of Poland, Bavaria, and Ottoman Empire+ increase the authority of the Habsburg emperor over his various realms
sought to reuduce Hungarian autonomy
extended freedom of worships to Lutherans, Calvinists
make laws more uniform and rational
abolish serfdom


Treaty of Paris


Henry III of England had signed wit hLouis IX of France, affirming English claims to Aquitaine in return for becoming a vasal of the French crown.

Statute of Laborers


A law issued by the king that froze wages and bound workers to their manors, attempting to make people work by setting pre-plague wages

Treaty of Tordesillas


Spain get everything to the west, and Portugal gets everything to the east.

Concordat of Bologna


approved the popes right to receive the first year income of any bishop, and abbot in France. Leo X had to allow the French ruler's right to select french bishops and abbots.

Peace of Westphalia


ended the thirty years war. conflict fought over religion received.


Divine Comedy


By Dante, Describes realms of the next world, Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise. Virgil- leads Dante through Hell. Beatrice- Leads him to paradise.

Defensor Pacis


Marsiglio of Padua Argued against the medieval idea of a society governed by both church and state, with church supreme.

Canterbury Tales


By Geoffrey Chaucer, The canterbury tales is a collection fo stories that shows 30 different people tell various tales. Reflects on the cultural tensions of the time.

The Imitation of Christ


Thomas a Kempis, Urges Christians to take Christ as their model, seek perfection in a simple way of life, and look to the scripture of guidance and in living a spiritual life.

The book of Tree Virtues


By Christine de Pizan, Provides moral suggestions and practical advice on behavior and household management for all women and social classes.

The Praise of Folly


By Erasmus, Satire poking at political, social, and religious institutions.



Thomas More on how a good government can make the population all together.

The Courtier


To train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentleman.