Art and learning were becoming the focus.
A lot of people liked the idea of bringing back ancient Greek and Roman ideology.
The main focus during this period was the importance and ability of the individual.
The end of this war left Calais as the only remaining English possession in France.
During the rule of the Mughal Empire, India's territory was at it's greatest extent. There was a centralized, imperialistic government that brought smaller kingdoms together. Indian culture and art began to thrive. The leaders were significant because they decreased in success as the thrown was passed down.
Mercantilism is the economic policy that was used by many monarchies. The government controlled the foreign trade which was important for ensuring military security of the country. It demands a positive balance of trade and seeks new sources of gold and silver, this led to more colonialism.
This changed the ways of religion by opening people's eyes to the teachings of the church and introducing new ideas or beliefs. The church became threatened after Martin Luther's 95 Theses. As a result of the new beliefs, Lutheranism was created.
During his rule, the kingdom extended into Pakistan, Afghanistan, and northern India. However, he was an incompetent leader and lost almost all of the inherited land.
The spread of the Renaissance ideas influenced changes in religion, economy, politics, literature and philosophy. It introduced the ideas of capitalism in England.
Akbar was one of the most influential leaders. He recognized that the military is where the majority of power lies. He was aggressive and used heavy artillery. By giving his potential enemies positions in his government, he creates allies. He continues the Islamic tradition of religious freedom.
He abolishes non-Muslim tax.
He was a patron of the arts, but also he invested in Architecture and Blended Cultures. He introduced a tax code, creates an effective tax policy, creates a
graduated income tax and a tax based on your earnings.
he introduced a new Land Policy and gave parts of the land to the members of the government.
his efforts cause the feudal system to be unable to emerge.
He leaves most of the work/the governing to his wife, Nur Jahan
-> effective leader
He secures power by assassinating all of his rivals
Builds Taj Mahal in honor of his wife and uses taxes to pay for it which leads to poverty and famine among the people.
During his rule, the Mughal Empire reaches it's greatest size, he oppresses his subjects, brings back the non-muslim tax, enforced a strict Islamic Law and
banned non-Muslims from working within the government.
This month is important because the Old Regime is dead and the first and the second estates are over as well. The National Assembly created the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen” which led to the idea that men are born with certain rights.
France is still in debt!!!!
The Assembly takes over the churches land, more church officials needed to be elected. the proceeds from the sale goes to the national debt
Prussian forces begin nearing Paris.They threaten France with destruction if their royal family becomes harmed.
The royal family is seized.
The royalists march on the new government. This event caused Napoleon to be called to defend the National Convention. His victory is what influences his title of being a national hero in Europe.
Napoleon was called to defend France against Austria. He crosses the Alps and has a series of victories. With these victories he decides to continue into Egypt where he meets British Admiral Horatio Nelson and loses in battle against him. This starts a rivalry between the two. Also, along this journey he discovers the Rosetta Stone, which was more focused on in the headlines rather than his big loss.
During this time, France is still at war against Austria, Britain, Russia and Spain. When Napoleon returns he is urged to take political power. He orders his troops to set up around the national legislature. This leads to a new government and Napoleon taking power as a dictator. By 1802, Napoleon has the countries at war to sign a peace treaty.
Napoleon began taking control as a dictator in 1799 when he returned from Egypt. By 1804, he had crowned himself emperor. He was never an elected official, however he acted like one. His goal was not to bring France back to how it was during the time of Louis XVI, he wanted to influence a more revolutionary idea based system. His primary goals were to strengthen the central government and improve the economy. His rule was responsible for successful tax collection and national bank. His rule also improved the government by eliminating the corrupt government officials who were in power. He also improved education by opening government run public schools that produced future government leaders.
This was a system of laws created by Napoleon. This system eliminated liberty and promoted order within France. This code was responsible for restoring slavery in the Caribbean. This system was extremely influential to other countries as well.
This was a Naval battle across the coast of Spain against Napoleons rival, Horatio Nelson. Britain is once again victorious which ends Napoleons plans to invade England. This also sets Britain as the most powerful navy for the following 100 years.
Napoleon is upset about losing against the British (who he is obsessed with defeating). He sets up a blockade that prevents Great Britain from accessing any other European Nation by closing all of the ports. His efforts led to smuggling British goods.
This war was caused by Portugal not accepting Napoleon's Continental System. Napoleon would not accept this, so he sent troops through Spain into Portugal. Spain uses guerrilla warfare against the french troops that enter their territory. Napoleon is unable to have an open battle which causes 300,00 French to die. This event is significant for it's influence on the spread of nationalism.
Collective security and stability were Europe's new goals after Napoleons rule. the European countries met in Vienna to make policies in order to achieve these goals
this lasted for 8 months
Austria's delegate was most influential because he didn't trust the democratic ideals of the french revolution and believed that democracy was responsible for Napoleon. Klemens von Metternich introduced his goals to be surrounding France with strong armies to prevent future aggression, restoring the balance of power to eliminate threats between countries and to restore Europe's royal families to their positions pre-napoleon.
the Changes in Europe due to this event include :
- more conservative power in France
-The creation of the Holy Alliance which honored the christian principles, this alliance was known as The Concert of Europe.
- diminished the amount of power that France had
it increased the power of Austria and Prussia
- it influenced the spread of nationalism (which leads to revolutions)
Ideas of the Europeans began to change and the study of the natural world began to focus on careful observations and the questioning of the current beliefs at the time. Resulted in the birth of the scientific method.
This war resulted in the Independence of the United States from the British Rule.
The goal was to eliminate imperial rule. It led to the establishment of a democratic leadership that represented the French citizens.
An army of 100,000 slaves were led by Toussaint L'Ouverture in efforts to rise up and fight off french oppression. This resulted in the end of slavery and french control in Haiti.
Enlightenment Ideas influenced Romanticism, which was a deep interest in nature and in the thoughts and feelings of the individual. However, Romantic thinkers went against the ideas from the enlightenment. They changed from reason to emotion and from society to nature. They also rejected the middle class. This was during the period of nationalism. Nationalism is the fuel to the ideas of romanticism.Romanticism ideas valued the common people and promoted radical change. Poetry, music and painting were the most influential art forms during this movement. Many romantic literature pieces and composer pieces are extremely important today.
In 1807, Napoleons army closes in on Portugal. The Royal family from Portugal then rules the empire from Brazil. However, in 1815, Napoleon is defeated, which allows the Portuguese to leave Brazil, however they leave Prince Dom Pedro to rule Brazil. In 1822 the Creoles demand Brazilian Independence and want Dom Pedro to be the first leader of Brazil as a country. Dom Pedro agrees which leads to Brazilian Independence.
Padre Miguel Hidalgo leads an army of peasants on a march to Mexico City, where he is defeated. This introduces Padre Jose Maria Morelos, who continues the revolt that Hidalgo started. Morelos is later defeated by a Creole named Agustin de Iturbide. Iturbide is the man responsible for Mexico's Independence from Spain, and he crowns himself Emperor. However, in 1823, he is overthrown for his lack of recognition of the other Latin American countries.
Jose de San Martin leads men from Argentina, over the Andes Mountains and into Chile. This leads to Chile being freed from Spanish Rule.
When San Martin meets Bolivar, he gives his army to Bolivar which leads to the liberation of Peru.
Simon Bolivar leads an army of 2,000 men over the Andes Mountains and into what is now known as Colombia. THis is where he defeats the Spanish Army, which leads to the independence of Venezuela.
The Greeks demanded their independence from the Ottomans in 1821. Russia's connection with the Greeks' christian populations and France and Britain's respect for the history of Greece led to the formation of a French, British and Russian fleet that defeated the Ottomans in 1827.
1829 - Britain, France and Russia sign a treaty that guaranteed Greek's Independence.
During the mid-19th century, Industrialization was taking place. To the people who were a part of this, Romanticism was pointless. This sparked the Ideas of Realism. Realism showed life as it was, in all of its glory and gore. It was able to capture the hard labor and suffering of the workers during Industrialization. Realism and the idea of capturing reality, led to the invention and popularity of photographs.
Instead of painting life as it was, impressionist pianters decided to make their art portray glimpses of a moment within time. This was more positive than realism. The movement of Impressionism was largely influenced by light. It showed a more positive view on society and it glorified the rise of the middle class that was happening because of Industrialization.
In 1866 Prussia defeats Austria in the Austria-Prussian War. This leads to Prussia gaining control of the new North German Confederation. Emperor Francis Joseph splits the Austrian Empire in half, calling one side Austria and the other side Hungary. They were both independent states but Joseph was still in charge of both.
The Mind Sea voyages were sponsored byYonglo and carried out by Zheng He, who was the Chinese Muslim emperor. These 7 voyages were around the Indian Ocean. Zheng He sailed with a large fleet. When he came to a country he was generous and some foreign leaders even sent tribute to China. These voyages showed the Ming dynasty's growing power over the sea.
Vasco de Gama began exploring the eastern coast of Africa, and he reached the Indian port of Calicut in 1498. The spices, rare skills and precious gems he discovered interested him, and he filled the Portuguese ships with those items. The cargo he brought back was worth 60 times the amount that the voyage had cost. This was a major factor in Portugal's success in trade.
This was an agreement between Portugal and Spain that decalred that newly discovered lands to the west of the Atlanic Ocean would belong to Spain, and the lands to the east would belong to Portugal.
The social aspect of the Reformation introduced the idea of humanism and the invention of the Printing Press. Economically, the reformation influenced the monarchs to be jealous of the power that th Church held. The pope was viewed as a foreign leader. The church eventually becomes a corrupt organization, and they only wanted money. Indulgences were introduced. An indulgence was where someone would pay the priest to erase their sins, even though they would still be there in the eyes of God. During this time, Martin Luther spoke his beliefs that salvation can be obtained only through God, Church should focus on the Bible and all people with fatih are equal. Peace Of Augsburg was created, which stated that every ruler gets to decide their country's religion.
In 1533, Ivan the Terrible took the thrown as the Tzar of Russia. during 1547-1560 Ivan achieved many victories that gained Russia a large amount of Land. 1560 is the year Ivan turned to bad after his wife died. He accused the boyars of poisoning his wife and began organizing his own police force. Their main duty was to hunt down and kill the people that Ivan considered traitors. Thousands were killed during this period of time.
The Dutch East India Company was foundd by the Dutch in the early 17th century. The goal of this was to establish a direct trade throughout Asia. This company was stronger than England's Company, so they drove out the English and established their dominance. Later, The Dutch East Company went bankrupt and was bought out by the British.
This battle was fought by the East Indian Company against the Indian Forces. Robert Clive led the East India Company and was victorious. This resulted in the British East India Company ruling for the next 10 years.
These were the main reason the Europe was slow to industrialize, making it fall behind other countries.
This was a pledge made by the members of the National Assembly of France in 1789. They vowed to continue meeting until they had created a new constitution.
The bill of Rights was drafted by James Madison and the men he led. It consisted of the the first ten amendments, which gauranteed the civil rights of american citizens.
Population increased more rapidly than food supply. Wars and epidemics occurred and killed off the extra people.
The unification of Italy was a long process. In 1815-1848, Italy begins drifting away from being under the control of another country. In 1848, The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia adopts a liberal constitution, which led to the unification under Piedmont-Sardinia. Camillo di Cavour was named Prime Minister in 1852. In 1858, Napoleon III agrees to help urge Austria out of the Northern Italian Provinces, which leads to an outbreak of war between the Austrians and French-Sardinian Army resulting in Sardinia gaining all of Italy (with the exception of Venetia).
1860 - Guiseppe Garibaldi led the Italian Nationalists to capture Sicily. WHen King Emmanuel II meets him he agrees to unite the southern areas with Piedmont-Sardinia. 1866 - Venetia becomes a part of Italy, which included the city of Venice.)
1870 - The remaining states (Papal States) were joined to Italy.
This forced European powers to abandon the hope of gaining colonies in the Americas. This resulted in Europe turning it's attention on to African colonization.
King Charles X's efforts were aimed towards returning France to an Absolute Monarchy. This results in an outbreak of riots that lead to King Charles X leaving France and Louis-Philippe coming into power.
The communist manifesto was published by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. This begam the bible of Socialism. The ideas stated that one class had always exploited the other and with the advent of modern history, society was clearly split between the middle class and the working class. Karl claimed that the working class would conquer to middle class in a violent revolution. This caused class-consciousness and guidlines for socialism.
Louis-Philippe came into power after King Charles X, however he was overpowered by a French mob. This marks the replacement of a Monarchy with a republic.
Each generation of Russian Czars launched war on the Ottoman Empire in hopes of gaining a warm weather port. 1853- Great Britian, France and the Ottoman Empire joined forces to fight off Russian. They were successful, however this event showed the Ottoman Empire's true weakness, which led to the europeans imperializing it.
This treaty between Japan and the United States opened up two Japanese ports to Us trade.
In 1856, Britain and France pressure the Turks into granting equal rights to everybody that is under their rule (Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians and Armenians). The result of this was the conservative Turks became angry, which caused a lot of tension within the Ottoman Empire. The tension influenced the Ottoman Empire to massacre and deport Armenians (1894-1896 and 1915).
Alexander II begins reforms in Russia. in 1861 he eliminates the feudal system, which gives peasants half of the nobles land, pays for that land and tells peasants that they will have to pay for the land in 49 years.
The result of this was the East India Company regaining control of the rebellion, but this time they required help from the British government so they sent troops to help.
This period of time is where the Japanese were under a new form of government. The leader tried to end Japans problems by modernizing Japan by studying foreign ways. This strengthened military and economic power.
The Suez Canal was a canal dug across the isthmus of Suez egypt. It opened for ships in 1869 and created a shortcut for ships traveling from europe to asia. Its importance led to the british conquest of Egypt in 1882
This was a meeting where the representatives of European nations agreed on guidelines for African colonization.
This was the successful resistance in Ethiopia led by Menelik II. The results in Ethiopia maintaining their independence.
This was a war fought between the United States and Spain. It took place in Cuba and the Philippines. The result in this war was Cuba's independence and the US' annexation of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.
This war was fought between the British and the Boers in South Africa over the control of the mining country. Great Britain was victorious which led to the creation of the Union of South Africa consisting of all of the South African colonies.
This rebellions took place in China. The rebellion was caused by the American and European "spheres of influence" that took place in the Chinese empire. This resulted in abnormal division of China and the world powers accepting compensation from the Chinese for the damages the rebellion had caused.
The US built the Panama canal in an effort to create a quicker pathway from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Initially, the columbians wouldn't allow the contruction of the canal, but with the help of the US, a Panamanian Revolution occured and the new rulling people allowed the canal to be built.
When Austria declares war on Serbia, the Great War begins. This escalates into the first world war.
This was a world organization that was established to promote international cooperation and peace. It was proposed by Woodrow Wilson even though the US never joined. This was esentially powerless so it ended up dissolving in 1946
This machine was created by John Kay. With the flying shuttle, a weaver was able to complete twice the amount of work he/she could do in one day.
The agricultural revolution kicked off with the creation of enclosures. This is where wealthy landowners now enclosed their properties with fences or hedges. They expirimented with ways to produce more or to gain a higher crop value. This led to the creation of agricultural machinery that improved crop success. One method of creating more crops was rotating crops. This included the rotation of crops in a certain area of soil to balance the nutrients in the soil. Another effect of this revolution was an increase in food supply. One way this was achieved was by selective breeding, which produced stronger and bigger animals.
This was invented by James Hargreaves. This increased the amount of textile product that could be produced and a certain amount of time.
Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769. This machine used water to power the spinning wheels, which decreased the work and time used by a textile worker.
Samuel Slater emigrated to the United States and he brought the design for a spinning machine with him. This sparked industrialization in the United States.
Francis Lowell mechanized every stage in the manufacturing of cloth. This boosted production and led to more jobs being opened in the textile industry.