600 C.E to 1450 C.E.


Sui Dynasty

581 C.E - 618 C.E

Founded by Yang Jian, who was part of the reunification for China after the division of China ended. For the dynasty, they continued to gain more power through naval and land battles, eventually gaining control of places such as the Yangzi river. Along with land domination, they also instituted the power of giving local officials the authority to appoint their own subordinates.

Tang Dynasty

618 C.E - 907 C.E

The Tang Dynasty was based in China, founded by Li Yuan (566-635). This dynasty was made special because of its capital, Chang'an, during its first dynasty. In Chang'an, the capital was well populated with merchants, pilgrims, missionaries, and students.

Umayyad Dynasty

661 C.E - 750 C.E

After the death of Muhammad. the Umayyad Caliphate was established as part of the four major Islamic caliphates. The dynasty was centered from Mecca and came to power under the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan.

Silla Dynasty

668 C.E - 935 C.E

One of the three ancient Korean kingdoms that unified Korea under the Unified Silla dynasty. Founded by Hyŏkkŏse, in the next 50 years, his successors, including King Naemul, had established state laws which allowed for Silla to come out as a strong kingdom that came with the annexation of the eastern half of the Kaya state.

Nara Period

710 C.E - 794 C.E

Nara was the first 'real' city, and capital, of Japan. Nara was modeled after the Tang Dynasty capital, Chang'an. In addition to modeling the physical features of Chang'an, the capital was also modeled after their governmental structure, such as ordering every providence to establish a Buddhist temple with certain specifications and requirements.

Abbasid Dynasty

750 C.E - 1258 C.E

Abu' al-Abbas led a rebellion against the Umayyad Dynasty in 747, to gain recognition as caliph in 750. The next ruler, al Mansur, would take over and make Baghdad in 762, the capital of the Abbasid Dynasty. With this move, it would allow for Islamic culture to flourish with philosophy and science to deem this period as the "golden age".

Reign of Charlemagne

768 C.E - 814 C.E

Also known as Karl and Charles the Great, he ruled much of Western Europe from 768 to 814. Became king of a Germanic tribe, he had gone on a quest to unite all people from Germany into one kingdom. In 800, he was crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III.

Heian Period

794 C.E - 1185 C.E

Just like Nara, Heian was based of the Tang capital of Chang'an. Also, their government was based around the Chinese form but it began to decline it while the Tang dynasty began to decline to as well. It was first led by two emperors who were involved in most of governing. However, the emperors began to be seen as more of a public figure and lost more power within the government as political management was put in place to take over.

Kingdom of Angkor

800 C.E - 1100 C.E

Under the rule of King Jayavarman II in 802, the king had moved a Khmer settlement to Siem Reap province which would later become the center of the Khmer empire. The successor of Jayavarman, King Suryavarman II, had the Angkor Wat temple built but was later sacked by Cham invasions and by the Thais.

Kingdom of Ghana

900 C.E - 1100 C.E

Under the inhabitation of the Soninke people, the kingdom of Ghana flourished with the development of agricultural farming and the ability to sustain an irrigation system. As for authority within the people, the West African king had full control of the land and continued to expand his control throughout the rest of his rule.

Song Dynasty

960 C.E - 1279 C.E

The Song Dynasty, created by general Taizu (960-976), established rules that would place troops all of the land and under centralized governments. When coming to invasions from other lands, Taizu had counteracted invasions by agreeing to pay other lands with gold. Eventually, they would fall the Mongols in 1279 due to their weakened and shortage of soldiers and weapons.

Schism between Eastern and Western Christian Church

1054 C.E

The separation between the now-known as the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches. Under the orders of Pope Leo IX, he traveled to Constantinople to insist on everybody recognizing his claim to be the head of all churches.

Norman Invasion of England

1066 C.E

Starting at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, Duke William of Normandy, appointed by the king, had crossed the English channel after his cousin, Edward the Confessor, had died. Once he crossed the channel, he had defeated the Anglo-Saxon rival at Hastings to take over the English throne.

First Crusade

1096 C.E - 1099 C.E

Upon the call of Pope Urban II, to fight Muslims, many responded by going towards Jerusalem to fight them. Urban's original call was directed towards Christians knights who were fighting each other. Urban claimed that the real enemies of god were Muslims. Christian knights had won the crusade against Turkish armies in Jerusalem. However, they would have complications such as not being able to establish a clear leader.

Kingdom of Great Zimbabwe

1100 C.E - 1400 C.E

At the beginning of the first millennium in South Africa, the land of Zimbabwe first started out as a agricultural powerhouse, developing gold in the future and raising cattle. In the fifth century, agriculture started to decline in Great Zimbabwe which would eventually lead to the end of Zimbabwe and an end to the gold trade in and out of the land.

Kingdom of Mali

1200 C.E - 1450 C.E

The city-state of Mali was created after gaining its independence from Ghana around 1200 C.E. The city-state expanded its control through agriculture, eventually making the city of Niani, its capital. Through the founder, Sundiata, and his successor, Mansa Musa, he established relations with different parts of Africa such as the trading site, Timbuktu, and appointing members of the royal family to work in the Mali government.

Fourth Crusade

1202 C.E - 1204 C.E

The last of the Crusade battles, this fight took place in Constantinople. At first, they came in peace but were later forced out. As a result, the Crusades fought the city and sacked its valuables, including relics that would be later sold in Europe. They would later face each other forcing their separation.

Fall of Constantinople

1204 C.E

Lead by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, the Turks had taken over the Greek city and renamed it to Istanbul. For the Byzantine Empire having only this part of land left in its power, this was the beginning of the end of the Byzantine Empire. Later, during the Fourth Crusade, Constantinople would fall to the Christian knights who would sack the city and leave it with nothing left.

Sultanate of Delhi

1206 C.E - 1526 C.E

Started by Muhammad of Ghur, he captured Delhi and gained control of most of north India. His successor, Qutb-ud-din, established a government at Delhi which was separate from the government in Afghanistan. He would go to be the ruler for the next three centuries despite the different dynasty changes that occurred in that time span. The decline began when armies of Timur had begun to take over the city of Delhi in 1398 which would force the sultan to leave. Until 1526 where its own government was weakened, Mughals had taken dominance of the sultan and officially ended their rule.

Reign of Chinggis Khan

1206 C.E - 1227 C.E

During a gathering of tribal leaders, Temujin was declared Chinggis Khan, great ruler, of the Mongol empire. After his appointment, he first established that Mongol be written down in a script that was used by the Uighur Turks. In the script, established rules and laws were written in the script. Along with establishing a written language, he also appointed members of different tribes to control different units throughout the land. They were also given a number of soldiers to protect the units and establish power.

Mongol quest of all of China

1206 C.E - 1276 C.E

The Mongolian empire, under Genghis Khan's rule, had taken over all of China with an army of over 100,000 horsemen. While conquering the land slowly, those who were conquered already had continued to provide money to the empire and allowing for growth within the economy.

Yuan Dynasty

1234 C.E - 1368 C.E

Also known as the Mongol Dynasty, it started when the Mongolian invasion of China took place and began to rule a majority of the land stretching from India to Russia to northern China and Korea. Under rule of Kublai Khan, the capital was moved from central Asia to Beijing.

Reign of Kublai Khan

1260 C.E - 1294 C.E

After the death of Chinggis Khan, the empire was divided into four different states each ruled by descendants of the previous khan. His grandson, Khubilai Khan, took over as the ruler and completed the total invasion of China, including the capture of the entire Song dynasty in central and South China. IN 1274, Kublai attempted to take over Japan but failed twice due to the Japanese samurai and their advanced power.

Marco Polo's Trip to China

1271 C.E - 1295 C.E

Starting from Venice with his family, Marco Polo set out to travel towards China and while traveling, he records all of his encountering s with different in all of the different lands. He would spend 17 years with his family in China.

Ibn Battuta

1304 C.E - 1368 C.E

Born to a family of legal scholars, he studied Muslim law and learned Arabic. He was mainly a traveler after leaving his family to make the pilgrimage to Mecca. Crossed North Africa and visited Alexandria, Cairo, Damascus, and Medina. He would then travel later to india and become a judge under the sultan of Delhi.

Reign of Mansa Musa

1312 C.E - 1337 C.E

Mansa Musa was successor of the Mali Empire. While appointed as king, Mansa had established significant role within the government such as appointing members of the royal family to serve roles within the system. This was based on other roles from China and France at that time. Between 1324 and 1325, he would take part in the pilgrimage to Mecca and would visit the sultan of Egypt and his grand entrance to Cario was rather more significant. While entering into Cario, Mansa would enter with over five hundred slaves with everyone carrying a six-pound staff of gold.


1336 C.E - 1405 C.E

Also known as Timur Lenk, he was a nomadic leader who had united the different nomadic tribes of the Asian Steppe. His rule, however, was consistent of brutality and yet, he was able to maintain an empire with cities that had thriving wealth throughout the region.

Hundred Years War

1337 C.E - 1453 C.E

In France, there were a series of battles that took place and involved English and French royal families. The whole purpose of the battles was for control of the throne in France. The last outcome of the battles was victory for the house of Valois.

First Bubonic Plague Pandemic

October, 1347

In 1347, the Bubonic Plague, also known as the Black Death, was a deadly disease that caused the death of over 1.4 million people in Europe. The disease was mainly a rodent spread epidemic that had effects that included getting a bump the size of a nut, anywhere in the body, including anywhere from the armpit, groin, or the neck. If caught early, there would be a chance that the disease could be treated. If the person was to cough up blood, it would indicate a compromise in the body which would mean that the person would be dying in one to two days.

Ming Dynasty

1368 C.E - 1644 C.E

The Ming Dynasty was considered one the greatest dynasties to rule China. They believed this because the new emperor of China had established a powerhouse of agriculture development which increased the economy significantly. During this dynasty, there would be various changes on the capital of China going back and forward between Nanjing and Beijing.

Zheng He's Expeditions

1405 C.E - 1433 C.E

Zheng He (1371-1433), was a Chinese explorer who lead seven major expeditions under rule of the Chinese emperor. He was also directed by the emperor to establish new trade routes for China in new areas. Along the way of exploring new land, he also explored new pharmacological products.

Inca Empire

1438 C.E - 1532 C.E

Based in the Andes Mountains, an independently developed civilization from the people of Mesoamerica. Their capital city was in Cuzco, with their main power coming from religious ideology that would also transform the culture of the Incas. They believed that dead-rulers were linked to the people to the sun-god. They developed significant improvements in land features such as building roads and stairs that would go across various parts of lands where its hard to travel. However, in their decline, they would see decreased parts of land where there it force the Incas to travel to the Amazonian rain forests which would cause military conflicts.