Began in Florence, spread through Europe. Rise of humanism and philosophy, focus on classics like Greek and Roman. Art emphasized the human form, realism, symmetry. Less emphasis on religious figures as deities.
European Powers (Namely: Portugal, Spain, France, England, Netherlands) begin exploring lands previously undiscovered or unexplored by Europeans. Notable explorers: Christopher Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, Francis Drake, Vasco de Gama, Amerigo Vespucci, Hernando Cortes
Begins with Martin Luther nailing his 95 theses on the door of the Church in Wittenberg. Anabaptists, Calvinists, Huguenots, part of reformation. Inspires many wars. Essentially ends with Treaty of Westphalia.
Explosion in scientific understanding of the natural world. Began with Nicolaus Copernicus's "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" which outlined a heliocentric theory of the universe. The heliocentric theory was condemned by Catholic and Protestant leaders alike, though protestants were more accepting of it.
(1609) Kepler publishes "Astronomia Nova" outlined first two laws of planetary motion
(1609) Galileo invents telescope
(1610) Galileo publishes "Starry Messenger", outlines discovery of the Moon's rocky surface
(1633) Galileo Tried for heresy, didn't renounce beliefs, put on house arrest
(1687) Newton publishes "Principia"
Improvements in agriculture technology improved quality of life for farmers, displaced many people from countryside to the city,
"Age of Reason"; Radical change in the philosophy of European intellectuals. Founded on Classical Liberalism, emphasized things like secularism, individual right, and skepticism. Aimed for a rigorous and systematic explanation of the human being and the world, all based on scientific principles. Very secular, first large scale break from all forms of Christianity.
Edward III claims French throne, takes French land, France fights back
Results: France wins, England gains Calais
Huguenots and Catholics fight for throne.
War of three Henrys: Henry II (Valois, Catholic), Henry III (Valois, Catholic), Henry IV (Bourbon, Huguenot-Catholic)
Many Huguenots killed in St Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Edict of Nantes gave Huguenots relative religious freedom.
Habsburgs attempt to end reformation once and for all
Calvinism not mentioned in Peace of Augsburg, Bohemian ruler wants Calvinism
Bohemian Phase: Starts in Bohemia with defenestration of Prague, go to war with HRE.
Danish Phase:Denmark comes to Bohemia's aid
Swedish Phase: Gustavus Adolphus also aids protestants, wants to keep Habsburgs down.
French phase: War turns political, Catholic France sends troops to fight HRE simply because they fear HRE power and Habsburg supremacy. No religious motivation at all.
Charles I increased taxes, wants more power
Parliament + people get angry
Conservative royalists are loyal to crown
Liberal Parliamentarians want him gone, want commonwealth
Royalists lose, Charles I executed
Religiously charged, royalists largely Anglican and parliamentarians largely Puritan
Series of civil wars in France. Nobles and Parlement rose up against Absolute rule of Louis XIV. Louis's victory established his supremacy over nobles and parlement
Philip IV dies, Louis XIV claims Spanish Netherlands. Britain, Holland, Sweden form alliance to stop the conquest.
Charles II of Spain dies without Heir. Louis XIV's grandson Philip named heir of Spain. England and Holland think that the Leopold of Austria has claims to throne. European coalition goes to war to prevent French-Spanish merger. Philip named Spanish king but France and Spain never allowed to unify.
Prussia seized Silesia from Austria.
Caused by political unrest in France. Third estate wanted more power over government matters. Peasants were getting taxed more than they could pay, and prices were inflating.
Tennis Court Oath - The third estate met as the "National Assembly" and vowed not to stop meeting until they had written a new constitution for France.
Storming of the Bastille - Revolutionary forces storm the Bastille, a prison that held large amounts of weapons and gunpowder, to supply their military needs. Killed many French officials and put their heads on stakes.
Declaration of the Rights of Man: A document which outlined the unalienable rights that the National Assembly believed each man had.
Women's March on Versailles: Many women marched to Versailles to demand bread for their children.
Reign of Terror: The "Committee of Public Safety" put to death anyone who seemed unsympathetic to the revolution. About 40,000 political dissidents executed.
Napoleon names himself emperor of France, tries to protect the advances made in the revolution, but will not spare any dissidents. Involved in endless wars trying to take over as much of Europe as he could
The Papacy was moved to Avignon for this period, following disagreements between the French and the HRE
Plague kills 1/3 of European population. Religion somewhat ignored, value of human and work goes up, puts more money in hands of peasants.
Papacy moved to Avignon, Two men simultaneously claim papal throne, Council of Pisa fails to resolve and elects third ineffective Pope.
Cosimo de Medici begins Medici dynasty in Florence, which lasted until 1537
The Medici family had a pervasive influence throughout Europe from the 15th to the 17th centuries. Producing French leaders, Florentine leaders, Popes and banking tycoons. Medicis were patrons of the arts.
-Giovanni de Medici (founder of Medici Bank)
-Cosimo de Medici (began Medici dynasty when he came to power in Florence)
-Lorenzo de Medici (Ruled Florence after Cosimo through the height of the Italian Renaissance, became patron of many famous artists)
-Catherine de Medici (Queen Regent of France)
-Pope Leo X
Pope Clement VII
Pope Leo XI
Johannes Gutenberg invents movable type, rise of printing press. Biggest revolution in communication until the Internet
Byzantine’s Constantinople falls to Ottomans
House of Lancaster and house of York fight for English throne. York wins and establishes Tudor dynasty
Castille and Aragon unified, Spain becomes great empire
Columbus sails to Hispanolia, thinks it is India, Discovers the Americas for Spain
Henry VIII asked for an annulment from Pope. After a refusal he broke from the Catholic Church and began the Anglican church, with him at the head.
Had 6 wives, 2 beheaded.
Martin Luther declared a heretic by the Catholic Church, protected by Frederick III of Saxony
Sack of Rome by mutinous troops of Holy Roman Empire
Embodiment of the Catholic Counter-Reformation. Some hoped for a reconciliation of Protestants and a reunifying of Christendom. Instead, the Catholic church reaffirmed and strengthened its doctrines (though it limited the sale of indulgences), and condemned all Protestants as heretics.
Granted by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Gave German princes the right to choose the religion of their land.
Charles V gives throne of HRE to various heirs, goes to live in a monastery.
See Louis XIV
One of the longest reigns of any monarch in history
Regent: Queen Anne (Mazarin and Richelieu, sort of)
Came to full power at 20 in 1653. Continued with help from Mazarin and Richelieu, and economic help from Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Ends 30 years war.
Takes substantial land from HRE, distributes it to European powers. Concerned with balance of power. Allows Calvinism under treaty of Augsburg.
Oliver Cromwell named "Lord Protector", basically a King
Glorious revolution overthrows Charles II and institutes William of Orange (William III) as king of England.
James Watt created a steam engine that could pump water 3 times faster than traditional engines.
Catholic Theologian and philosopher. Influenced modern philosophy.
Father of Renaissance Humanism. Rediscovered Cicero and began to study classics.
Early critic of the Catholic Church. Believed scripture was the sole authority of Christianity. Believed Monasticism and the Papacy were corrupt.
Declared a heretic in 1415 and his works were burned.
Prince Henry the Navigator begins sponsoring explorations around the coast of Africa
Joan of Arc, important woman in late middle ages. Claimed visions from God, inspired French troops, captured by English and put to death for heresy.
First explorer to sail West, looking for India but found Americas
Model of the Renaissance man.
-Inventor, artist, architect, philosopher, historian, mathematician, scientist
Most important works include: The Last Supper, the Mona Lisa, the Vitruvian Man
Renaissance Humanist, wrote The Prince, on the importance of pragmatic leadership over moral leadership.
One of the few well educated women of Renaissance times. Became a very effective ruler of Mantua after death of her husband.
Rejected Papal supremacy. Believed that the Bible was the sole authority for Christians. Wrote "95 Theses", A list of grievances against Catholic corruption, specifically the sale of indulgences. Protected from execution by German Princes. Spread of his ideas was aided by Printing Press.
Swiss Reformer, Christ symbolized by the Eucharist
Holy Roman Emperor, lost Catholic unity under his reign. Strongly believed in Christian unity and fought against the reformation.
Most of Europe against him because he had the claim to three crowns (Holy Roman Empire, Netherlands and Spain), they feared a European hegemony
Reformer who started Calvinism
Queen regent of France, ruled through her two sons.
Last Valois monarch of France
English writer whose ubiquitous writings formed the greatest plays of the late English Renaissance.
Converted to Catholicism for the throne. "Paris is worth a mass". Issued Edict of Nantes, murdered by Catholic fanatic
King of France, embodiment of absolutism. Became absolute ruler through tactical court politics, and manipulating nobles to remain under his control. Involved in constant wars and partially caused the economic downfall of France that led to French Revolution
Charles II of Spain dies without an heir. Louis claims Spain for his grandson, Philip. Coalition of European states against Louis because they feared a unification of France and Spain. Philip was made king but France and Spain were never allowed to unify.
the Divine Comedy describes Dante's descent into Hell, through Purgatory, and ascent into Heaven. Important because it was one of the first works written in the Tuscan Language rather than Latin, standardizing Tuscan as the common Italian language
A satire which personifies "Folly" as a person, and uses this outlook to criticize the Church and many other standards of European life at the time.
Handbook for the ruler on preserving your state. Emphasizes Pragmatic leadership over moral/kind leadership. "It is better to be feared than loved"
Critique of his society and the Church, to an extent. Envisioned a world called "Utopia" which had religious tolerance, rational government and a socialist economy
Criticized and condemned various aspects of Catholic corruption focused on sale of indulgences.
Explained proper behavior and disposition of a renaissance prince or courtier. Provided the model for the Renaissance Man, instructed the courtier to be well rounded and well read in many subjects and interests.
Near the end of his life. Copernicus publishes discoveries of a heliocentric universe. Claims that Earth rotates around sun, places sun in the center of universe.
Starry Messenger explains discoveries that the moon is rocky, like the earth's surface, and not smooth like previously believed. It also explains that the surface and composition of the planets are different from that of the stars.
Descartes attempts to outline a strict skeptical logic system. Decides that the only thing he truly knows is that he exists. "I think, therefore I am". Embodiment of skepticism, beginning of deductive reasoning.
Thomas Hobbes argued for monarchy. Rejected divine right theory and rather focused on a theory of force, asserting that humans are naturally in a state of "war of all against all", and an absolute monarch is the only thing to bring men out of this natural state.
Newton synthesizes inductive and deductive reasoning into the modern scientific method. He also outlines his laws of motion and the beginnings of calculus.
John Locke deconstructs Hobbes' argument for monarchy and instead argues for the social contract theory, claiming that government has no right but the protection of the people. Beginning of classical liberalism, influenced the enlightenment greatly
Advocated separation of powers, criticized French government but used English government as a good illustration of separation of powers.
The Encyclopedie was written as an attempt to index all the world's knowledge through an enlightened, skeptical lens. It was the first time a skeptical, rigorous directory of knowledge existed.
Candide was a largely religious satire, featuring corrupt preachers, ignorant teachers, and exposing hypocrisy of all forms of religion
Advocated economic freedom and competition, laissez-faire economics. Criticized guilds and mercantilism. Foundation of modern economic theory.
Beginning of modern feminist philosophy. Advocated legal and intellectual equality of the sexes. Believed that women should be educated as thoroughly as men and given the same opportunities in society. Very conservative compared to the true feminist writings of the 20th century.
Chadwick was a reformer set on ending poverty in urban areas.