Frederick Griffith discovers that bacteria contain a molecule that can transfer genetic information from cell to cell.
Kary Mullis published the first paper describing PCR.
DNA was isolated by Friedrich Miescher. He discovered nuclein.
William Astbury produced the first X - ray diffraction patterns that showed that DNA had a regular structure.
James Watson and Francis Crick
James Watson and Francis Crick publish their model of the DNA double helix. The model was made possible by Franklin's work.
Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project begins planning.
First gene fusions detected by deep sequencing.
He uses pea plants to study how traits are passed on. His discovery begins the science of genetics.
Many Gene Fusions
9,928 gene fusions involving 8,607 genes known in neoplasia.
Albrecht Kossel isolated nucleic acid and then isolated its five primary nucleobases.
Walter Sutton shows that chromosomes carry the cell's units inheritance.
Phoebus Levene suggested that DNA consisted of a string of nucleotide units linked together through a phosphate group.
Oswald Avery, Colin Macleod, Maclyn McCarthy
Oswald Avery, Colin Macleod, and Maclyn McCarthy show the substance that Griffith Discovered is DNA.
1977 - 79
Scientists at Genetech genetically modify microorganisms to produce the human hormone somatostasin, human insulin, and human growth hormone.
Craig Venter and Francis Collins
Craig Venter and Francis Collins announce the draft of the DNA sequence of the human genome at a White House ceremony.
Dolly the Sheep
Dolly the Sheep was the first mammal to ever be cloned from the cells of an adult mammal.
Erwin Chargaff analyzes the base composition of DNA in cells.
Human Genome Project Begins
Human Genome Project begins identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome.
Alfred Hershey, Martha Chase, and Rosalind Franklin
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase confirm that the genetic material of viruses is DNA, not protein. Rosalind Franklin records a critical X - ray diffraction pattern, demonstrating that DNA is in the form of a helix.
Sequencing of the Human Genome
Sequencing of the human genome to be complete with an accuracy of 99.99%
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Thomas Hunt Morgan demonstrates that genes are arranged in linear fashion on the chromosomes of the fruit fly.
DDR reported to be an anticancer barrier in early stage tumorigenesis.
Multiple mutations in DDR Genes
Multiple mutations in DDR genes identified in cancers.