History of DNA (1860 - 2017)

Events

Gregor Mendel

1865

He uses pea plants to study how traits are passed on. His discovery begins the science of genetics.

Friedrich Miescher

1869

DNA was isolated by Friedrich Miescher. He discovered nuclein.

Albrecht Kossel

1878

Albrecht Kossel isolated nucleic acid and then isolated its five primary nucleobases.

Walter Sutton

1903

Walter Sutton shows that chromosomes carry the cell's units inheritance.

Thomas Hunt Morgan

1911

Thomas Hunt Morgan demonstrates that genes are arranged in linear fashion on the chromosomes of the fruit fly.

Phoebus Levene

1919

Phoebus Levene suggested that DNA consisted of a string of nucleotide units linked together through a phosphate group.

Frederick Griffith

1928

Frederick Griffith discovers that bacteria contain a molecule that can transfer genetic information from cell to cell.

William Astbury

1937

William Astbury produced the first X - ray diffraction patterns that showed that DNA had a regular structure.

Oswald Avery, Colin Macleod, Maclyn McCarthy

1944

Oswald Avery, Colin Macleod, and Maclyn McCarthy show the substance that Griffith Discovered is DNA.

Erwin Chargaff

1950

Erwin Chargaff analyzes the base composition of DNA in cells.

Alfred Hershey, Martha Chase, and Rosalind Franklin

1952

Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase confirm that the genetic material of viruses is DNA, not protein. Rosalind Franklin records a critical X - ray diffraction pattern, demonstrating that DNA is in the form of a helix.

James Watson and Francis Crick

1953

James Watson and Francis Crick publish their model of the DNA double helix. The model was made possible by Franklin's work.

Genetech

1977 - 79

Scientists at Genetech genetically modify microorganisms to produce the human hormone somatostasin, human insulin, and human growth hormone.

Kary Mullis

1983

Kary Mullis published the first paper describing PCR.

Human Genome Project

1984

The Human Genome Project begins planning.

Human Genome Project Begins

1990

Human Genome Project begins identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome.

Dolly the Sheep

1996

Dolly the Sheep was the first mammal to ever be cloned from the cells of an adult mammal.

Craig Venter and Francis Collins

2000

Craig Venter and Francis Collins announce the draft of the DNA sequence of the human genome at a White House ceremony.

Sequencing of the Human Genome

2003

Sequencing of the human genome to be complete with an accuracy of 99.99%

DDR

2005

DDR reported to be an anticancer barrier in early stage tumorigenesis.

Gene Fusions

2008

First gene fusions detected by deep sequencing.

Multiple mutations in DDR Genes

2014

Multiple mutations in DDR genes identified in cancers.

Many Gene Fusions

2015

9,928 gene fusions involving 8,607 genes known in neoplasia.