When Muhammad was five or six his mother took him to Yathrib, an oasis town north of Mecca, to stay with relatives and visit his father's grave there. On the return journey, Amina took ill and died. She was buried in the village of Abwa on the Mecca-Medina Road
In his early twenties, Muhammad entered the service of a wealthy Meccan merchant, a widow named Khadija bint Khawalayd. Here he learns the way of the merchant.
Mecca's new materialism and its traditional idolatry disturbed Muhammad. He began to make long retreats to a mountain cave outside town. There, he fasted and meditated. On one occasion, after a number of indistinct visionary experiences, Muhammad was visited by an overpowering presence and instructed to recite words of such beauty and force that he and others gradually attributed them to God.
Muhammad finally began to reveal the messages he was receiving to his tribe. These were gathered verse by verse and later would become the Qur'an, Islam's sacred scripture. In the next decade, Muhammad and his followers were first belittled and ridiculed, then persecuted and physically attacked for departing from traditional Mecca's tribal ways.
Muhammad and his few hundred followers left Mecca and traveled to Yathrib, the oasis town where his father was buried. The leaders there were suffering through a vicious civil war, and they had invited this man well known for his wisdom to act as their mediator.
Early skirmishes led to three major battles in the next three years. Of these the Muslims won the first, lost the second, and won the third. a treaty was signed between the two sides, which recognized the Muslims as a new force in Arabia and gave them freedom to move freely throughout Arabia.
By now, the balance of power had shifted radically away from Mecca, toward Muhammad and the Muslims. So they marched on Mecca and were joined by tribe after tribe along the way. They entered Mecca without bloodshed but, the Meccans, joined them.
Justinian the Great died in 565 A.D. bringing to end 38 years of rule as leader of the Byzantine Empire. Under his stewardship, the Empire expanded to include all of North Africa and parts of the Middle East as well as Italy and Greece. Under Justinian, the first comprehensive compilation of Roman Law was published.
Leovigild the King of Visigoths set off to reinvigorate the empire. He extended the Vistigoth dominance to all parts of the Iberian Pennisula.
At the Battle of Deorham in southwestern England, the Saxons defeated the Welsh. This victory virtually completed the Saxon conquest of England.
Gregory the Great was the first monk to become Pope. Gregory controlled the civil affairs of Rome and expanded the power of the Church. Gregory also negotiated a 30-year truce with Lombards, insuring the independence of Rome.
At first the Vikings in Ireland stayed within 20 miles of the coast because they were unsure about what lay ahead inland so they kept their attacks along the coast targeting Irish monasteries.
The siege of 626 failed because the Avars did not have the patience or technology to conquer the city. although they were very skilled in siege warfare.
Last Persian Byzantium conflict