Viets destroy kingdom of Champa
• Le Loi and Nguyen Trai lead revolt against the Ming (1418-28);
• Independent dynasty established; Confucian-style state with examinations;
• attack on Champa;
• Le Thanh-tong, king who implements changes
• Le family power declines
• Mac and Trinh families compete in north while Nguyen family competes from center and south
• Trinh and Nguyen claim to restore the Le
by the Cham occurred in 1728 after the passing away of their ruler Po Saktiraydaputih.
(epic poem in Chu Nom, Vietnamese characters), written by Nguyen Du (1765-1820)
Tay Son brothers defeat Nguyen and Trinh and unify country
the last remnant of the Cham Kingdom
Until this time the government had been bureaucratic in theory, but was actually aristocratic. Even after 1185, civil government at the Emperor's court continued and the law and the state were not changed, but a new samurai class came to power and increasingly became the real rulers of the country. Some form of military leadership remained the form of government in Japan until 1868, when a centralized bureaucratic government came into being with the Meiji Restoration. The following reading describes the various warrior governments from 1185 to 1868, outlining the specific characteristics of each.
when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.
In 1494, the pope arbitrated the dispute and drew a Line of Demarcation down the middle of the Atlantic. Everything outside of Christian Europe and west of the line belonged to Spain; everything east of it was Portugal's to claim. The line extended all around the globe, but since the size of the earth was not known, just where that line came out was anybody's guess.
with a fleet of ten Portuguese ships. Using da Gama' tactic of swinging westward to pick up westerly winds to take him around the Cape of Good Hope, he accidentally hit Brazil which juts eastward into the Atlantic. Since that part of Brazil lay east of the Line of Demarcation, Cabral claimed it for Portugal. He continued to India, but found the same problems da Gama had encountered: Arab hostility and an unwillingness to trade for European goods.
and explorer Binot Paulmier de Gonneville traded for brazilwood after making contact in southern Brazil a year later.
By 1531 the French had stationed a trading post off of an island on the Brazilian coast.
In 1531, a royal expedition led by Martim Afonso de Sousa and his brother Pero Lopes went to patrol the whole Brazilian coast, banish the French, and create some of the first colonial towns—among them São Vicente, in 1532.
Portuguese Empire in Asia was in serious decline and increasingly losing ground, first to the Dutch and later to the English.
Evidence of the presence of Jewish people in Muscovite Russia is first documented in the chronicles of 1471
In 1495 Alexander the Jagiellonian expelled Jewish residents from Grand Duchy of Lithuania but reversed his decision in 1503.
Reestablished authority over China after foreign rule
Age of Exploration.
Expeditions led by Zheng He
Taken over by peasant army
Under rule of foreigners for the 2nd time (the Manchus).
Created a large army
Expanded their rule through military conquest.
Effort to mimic Chinese culture
Used civil service exam
Forced Chinese men to wear the queue, or a braid
Wars and Rebellions weakened empire
After a period of Mongol rule, Russian forces gain control over several Mongol Khanates in Central Asia. The aquisition of central Asian lands opened opportunities for trade and commerce with the Ottomans, Iran, and even India. Expansion and centralization of power leads to the emergence of the Russian empire.
Peter brings western culture and technology to Russia, strengthens the military, and relocates the capitol to the newly constructed Petersburg.
Peter travels across Europe and acquires the advanced knowledge and technologies of Western Europe. He returns to Russia in 1698.
The Great Northern War is fought between the Russian and Swedish empires. It is started as a result of Russian expansion into the Baltic Sea in search of warmer ports. It ends in a treaty, with Russia gaining large potions of the Baltic and emerging as a powerful empire.
Szczecin, Poland. Her husband, Peter III, was assassinated. Russia was revitalised under her reign, growing larger and stronger than ever and becoming recognised as one of the great powers of Europe. While she was in rule, called the Catherine era, soon became known as “the golden age of the Russian Empire”
Jingren Palace, Forbidden City, Beijing. The Kangxi Emperor's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history. The Kangxi Emperor is considered one of China's greatest emperors. He suppressed the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, forced the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan and assorted Mongol rebels in the North and Northwest to submit to Qing rule, and blocked Tsarist Russia on the Amur River, retaining Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China.