The United States had dropped the bombs with the consent of the United Kingdom as outlined in the Quebec Agreement. The two bombings, which killed at least 129,000 people, remain the only use of nuclear weapons for warfare in history. The war in Europe had concluded when Nazi Germany signed its instrument of surrender on May 8, 1945, just after Hitler committed suicide. The Japanese, facing the same fate, refused to accept the Allies’ demands for unconditional surrender and the Pacific War continued. Orders for atomic bombs to be used on four Japanese cities were issued on July 25. On August 6, the U.S. dropped a uranium gun-type (Little Boy) bomb on Hiroshima. American President Harry S. Truman called for Japan’s surrender, warning it to “expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth.” Three days later, on August 9, a plutonium implosion-type (Fat Man) bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects of the atomic bombings killed 90,000–146,000 people in Hiroshima and 39,000–80,000 in Nagasaki; roughly half of the deaths in each city occurred on the first day. During the following months, large numbers died from the effect of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness and malnutrition. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizable military garrison. Japan announced its surrender to the Allies on August 15, six days after the bombing of Nagasaki. The social difference in the view of the atomic bomb is still significant to this day in Japan and America, with the US seeing radioactivity as creating heroes (Spider-Man) and Japan seeing it a negative, creating monsters (Godzilla). There are two arguments as to how these events affected the Cold War, the first one being that it changed Stalin's attitude. A number of ways that the atomic bomb could have alienated Stalin have been suggested. The traditional one is that Truman did not tell Stalin about the bomb, except in passing, and then only very vaguely. When he mentioned the Bomb to Stalin on 24 July, he just quickly mentioned in passing that the USA had ‘a new weapon of unusual destructive force.’ In addition, Stalin may have seen the dropping of the atomic bomb as directed at Russia more than Japan. He told Molotov, "They are killing the Japanese and intimidating us." The second argument about how these events affected the cold war is that it changed Truman's attitude. Some historians believe that it encouraged Truman to seek confrontation, as after he knew he had the bomb, at the Potsdam Conference he became more aggressive, he switched from pro-Soviet advisors to anti-communist advisors, he dropped the bomb on Japan, preventing Stalin from having a chance to enter the at in the pacific, and developed a confrontational attitude, reportedly telling his advisors, "I'm tired of babying the Soviets."