Provided funds to relocate all Eastern tribes.
A group of Cherokee Indians filed a law suit challenging the legality of the Indian Removal Act. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokees, but the decision was ignored by President Jackson.
The US government established reservations for the purpose of containing and "civilizing" the native peoples who lived there in exchange for "protection."
In order to make land available for white settlers, the government abolished the northern half of the land designated Indian territory.
Many tribes survived by adapting their lives to fit within the new federal Indian policy. The Cheyenne became expert horse trainers. The Navajos sustained themselves on crafts and artisans. The Hopis gained the allegiance of influential whites.
An illegally signed treaty that mandated the Nez Perce tribe abandon 6 million acres of land and move to a tiny reservation in Oregon without much compensation.
Battles broke out between local white troops, the US Army, and the Nez Perce tribe as some tried to make their way to the Oregon Reservation and as some tried to rebel against federal policy and aggression. Chief Joseph surrendered in 1877
This war included the Sand Creek Massacre, the brutal killing and mutilation of 105 Cheyenne. Colorado troops eventually won.
Chief Red Cloud fought the US Army to a stalemate and forced them to surrender and abandon their forts, which the Sioux burned down.
Condensed more tribes onto a smaller area of land, causing internal strife.
As the terms of surrender, the federal government "guaranteed" the Sioux perpetual land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. It was later disregarded by gold seekers.
Congress created this federal board to assimilate tribes into white culture and adjudicate tribal disputes on reservation.s
The Kiowas and Comanches joined with a rebellious Apache faction under the leadership of Geronimo to perform raids on white outposts and attacks on the US Army. The US Army prevailed by cutting off the rebels' food supply. The Indian Wars only officially ended when Geronimo finally surrendered in 1886.
As a response to their defeat at the hands of native tribes and to the public outcry, the US Army found and dissolved the bands of Little Big Horn veterans, forcing them to surrender. These persecutions ended Sioux leadership of the Indian Wars.
Colonel Custer and his troops were wiped out by 3,000 combined Sioux and Cheyenne warriors. The white soldiers became martyrs that incited intense anti Indian fervor.
Reformer Helen Jackson published "A Century of Dishonor" which sympathetically described the plight of native peoples and criticized federal policy.
Ended tribal ownership of land in favor of allotting land parcels to individual Indians. Banned expressions of native culture in schools, religion, and economic practices.
This Sioux religious revival movement emphasized returning to native culture as a backlash against the Dawes Act's goals of assimilation.
US Army massacred hundreds of Sioux involved with the Ghost Dance movement, which they saw as threatening to their social order.