In Iran the Big three met to discuss how to defeat Germany
First atomic bomb
USA drops it on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Allied leaders met in Ukraine to plan Europe after Germany was defeated
Second Conference but 3 major changes since Yalta
USA and British combined their zone of Berlin
USA would send money, equipment and advice to any country in Americas view that was threatened by a Communist takeover
Stalin set up the Communist Information Bureau to co-ordinate work of the Communist Parties of East Europe. It regularly brought leaders of Communist parties to Moscow to be briefed by Stalin and his ministers, allowing Stalin to keep a close eye on the Independent-minded leaders and replace them with people completely loyal to him.
New currency in West Berlin
New currency began to repair Germany
French join their zone to US and British Berlin zone
After George Marshall was sent to Europe to assess the economic state he returned saying it would need $17 billion to rebuild prosperity. After Czechoslovakia fell to Communism congress finally accepted Marshall Aid making $17 billion availiable to Europe over four years
Airlift in Berlin
June 1948 - May 1949
For ten months the Allies airlifted supplies to West Berlin. When the first planes set off and flew over the Soviet zone everyone feared it would result in them being shot down which would mean war but they weren't. Food, clothing, oil and building materials were brought in. Stalin reopened communications in May realising that the blockade would not make the Western Allies give up Berlin.
USSR blockades Berlin
After Trizonia was created Stalin felt ganged up on, especially after a new currency was introduced in west berlin. So he blocked all supply lines in the hope of making west berlin entirely reliable on USSR
The North Atlantic Treaty Organistation was set up as Western Leaders signed an agreement to work together
Trizonia becomes the Federal Republic of Germany
USSR zone becomes Geramn Democratic Republic
Nikita Khruschev emerges
Khrushchev still wanted a buffer zone against attack from the West. Warsaw pact was a military alliance similar to NATO. Members would defend each other if one was attacked. It included all Communist countries of eastern Europe, except Yugoslavia.
At Communist Party International Khrushchev attacks Stalin. Announcing him a wicked tyrant. He starts releasing more political prisoners, closed down Cominform and dismissed Stalin's foreign minister, Molotov.
He was no more acceptable to the Hungarian people. A huge student demonstration in October made the USSR allow a new government to be formed under the well respected Imre Nagy.
IN control of Hungary after Erno Gero
Rakosi loses power
After Khrushchev's destalinisation speech a group within the Communist party in Hungary opposed Rakosi. He appealed to Moscow for help but Moscow would not back him for 'health reasons' ordering his retirement.
Soviets attack the Hungarians
Thousands of troops and tanks moved into Budapest as a result of Imre Nagy trying to leave the Warsaw pact. 3000 Hungarians killed and 7-8000 Russians killed. 200,000 Hungarians fled to Austria and Imre Nagy imprisoned.
Imre Nagy dies
Imprisoned and executed. Replaced by Janos Kadar
Khrushchev visits the USA
Challenges Americans to goods, technology and ideas competition
Khrushchev and JFK meet at Vienna summit meeting
He thought low of Kennedy and challenged him over Berlin requiring him to remove US troops from the city. Kennedy refused
USA break off diplomatic relations with Cuba
The Soviet Union was giving economic aid and arms.
Bay of Pigs
Instead of a direct invasion President Kennedy supplied arms, equipment and transport for 1,400 anti-Castro exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow him. In April 1961exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs, met by 20,000 Cuban troops armed with tanks and modern weapons. Castro killed them all within days.
East German soldiers erect a barbed wire barrier along border
Preventing movement across Berlin soon replaced by concrete wall. Separating Germans in Berlin, all access was blocked off apart from one place checkpoint Charlie. Border guards had instructions to kill anyone who passed.
US diplomats frequently cross the wall
To test what would happen
Soviet tanks pull up at checkpoint charlie
October 27 1961
Refuse any further access to the east. All day they face eachother until the tanks pulled back slowly.
Soviet Union supplies missiles
Soviet Union sent thousands of Soviet missiles, patrol boats, tanks, radar vans, missile erectors, jet bombers, jet fighters and 5,000 Soviet technicians to help maintain weapons.