HIST 007 Timeline: Part 1

Note that the beginning dates of the pleistocene and paleolithic are not correct (the timeline starts with the migration of homo sapiens to Asia - otherwise everything would be too squished)

Geological epochs

Mt. Toba disaster

75,000 BP
  • Global temps dropped by 5 deg Celsius
  • Temps remained cool for 1000 yrs
  • humanity barely survives

Pleistocene

Approx. 75,000 BP - 11,700 BP

Holocene

11,700 BP - 1800 AD

Bronze Age Dark Ages

2200 BCE - 1200 BCE

Roman Warm Period

250 BCE - 400 AD

Dark Ages

400 AD - 900 AD
  • Floods, Asian monsoons
  • Sporadic ENSO pattern
  • Drop in N temps
  • Ice rafting in N Atlantic bracketed dark ages
  • Population stagnation in Europe and China

MWP

950 AD - 1250 AD

General
- Persistent La Nina
- Positive NAO (warmer, wetter Europe)
- MWP did NOT lead to warmer temps everywhere at once – ex) China

Stone ages

Paleolithic

Approx. 75,000 BP - 10,000 BP

**2,600,000 BP - 10,000 BP
- Simple stone tools

Neolithic

10,000 BCE - 2,000 BCE
  • pottery
  • human settlements

Humans

HS: Africa --> Asia

70,000 BP

75,000 YA: HS: major migration from Africa to Asia

HS --> australia

50,000 BP
  • by raft

HS --> euro

40,000 BP

Neanderthals die

40,000 BP

HS --> Americas

30,000 BP - 16,000 BP

Agriculture emerges

12,000 BP
  1. Fertile Crescent
  2. Wild grains were ideal for domestication
  3. Semi-arid climate --> bounty
  4. Native animals earn to domesticate

2, Yellow River Valley in China

(from Ruddiman, pg 66)

First settlements

10,500 BP

Settlements --> rise in population

(Ruddiman pg 68)

Uruk

4000 BCE
  • managed by priests
  • First mass application of the wheel

Rise of Rome

753 BCE
  • Before RWP (250 BCE - 400 AC)

Animals

Megafauna die

Approx. 60,000 BP - Approx. 12,000 BP

Who killed the megafauna?
- 1. Most say: hunting by HS
- 2. Climate change
- Consensus: Humans disrupted environments in ways that made it harder for megafauna to migrate to new areas

TAKEAWAY: While hunting did not directly kill off the megafauna, it made them more vulnerable to climate change because it hindered their ability to adapt.

Wolves domesticated

32,000 BP