The Progress Of BIOLOGY


Aristotle describes life with the Scala Naturae

350 BC

He was a Greek philosopher who created two classification systems to group living organisms based on several factors, including physical characteristics and perceived mental capacities. He introduced his systems of scientific classification in the 1600s, classifying organisms until 1800.
Works cited: Worldview (Reference).

Galen of Peramum describes the human body

160 AD

He was a prominent Greek physician, surgeon, and philosopher in the Roman Empire. He was the first of the great anatomists (AD 130-200), first performing anatomy on Barbary apes.
Works cited: Web;

Lamarck develops Hypothesis of evolution by means of acquired characteristics


He was a French naturalist who took great conceptual step and proposed a full-blown theory of evolution. He believed that life had begun through spontaneous generation. He was proposing that life took on its current form through natural processes, not through miraculous interventions. Works cited: Web; www.evolution.berkeley (understanding Evolution).

The Voyage of the HMS Beagle


The voyage of the Beagle is the title most commonly given to the book written by Charles Darwin and published in 1839 as his journal and remarks, bringing him considerable fame and respect. Works cited: Web;

Alfred Russel Wallace published ideas of evolutionary processes


While Charles Darwin gets all the credit, Alfred Russel Wallace, another British naturalist, was a co-discoverer of the theory of evolution. By 1855 Wallace had come to the conclusion that living things evolve. The two men published a joint paper in 1858, arguing the theory of evolution and natural selection. Works cited; Web; (Morning Edition/Anthony Kuhn).

The Origin of species by means of Natural Selection is published


In the Origin of Species, British naturalist, Charles Darwin introduced the concept of natural selection, which is a natural process which acts to preserve and accumulate minor advantageous variations within living systems. He lived from 1809-1182.
Works cited: Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for life. (1859, p. 109).

Louis Pasteur refutes Spontaneous generation.


This French Chemist, while publishing “The Germ Theory of Disease,” proved that the idea of spontaneous generation was wrong because no decay happened is matter was placed in a sealed container. Works Cited: Web;

The Germ Theory of Disease is published


In 1861, Louis Pasteur, a French chemist, published his germ theory, showing that there were microbes in the air and that they caused decay. His work later proved the idea of spontaneous generation was wrong because no decay happened if matter was placed in a sealed container. This showed that the microbes causing decay were not produced from the matter itself but were in the air around it. Works cited: Web; 2016.

Gregor Mendel publishes works on inheritance of traits in pea plants


Through his work on pea plants, he discovered the fundamental laws of inheritance. He deduced that genes come in pairs and are inherited as distinct units, one from each parent. The experiment took him eight years from (1856-1863) and he published his results in 1865.
Works cited: Web;

The Challenger Oceanography Expedition sails around the world

1872 - 1876

The Challenger expedition of 1872-76 was a scientific exercise that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography. It was described as “the greatest advance in the knowledge of our planet since the celebrated discoveries of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. She traveled nearly 70,000 nautical miles (130,000 km) surveying and exploring.
Works cited: Web;

Plasmodium falciparum is described as the causative agent of malaria


A parasite was first seen by Laveran on November 6, 1880, at the military hospital in Constantine, Algeria, when he discovered a microgametocyte ex flagellating. Then Patrick Mason (1894) hypothesized that mosquitoes could transmit malaria. This hypothesis was experimentally confirmed independently by Giovanni Battista Grassi and Ronald Ross in 1898.
Works cited: Web;

Hardy and Weinberg independently develop the Hardy-Weinberg equation for determining allele frequencies in population


The Hardy-Weinberg equation is the mathematical equation that can be used to calculate the genetic variation of a population at equilibrium. In 1908, G.H. Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg independently described a basic principle of population genetics, which is now named the Hardy-Weinberg equation. Works cited: Web; (suitable by nature education)

Neils Bohr develops the Bohr model of atom structure


Bohr proposed his quantized shell model of the atom to explain how electrons can have stable orbits around the nucleus. This was a stability problem, so the remedy to the problem, Bohr modified the Rutherford model by requiring that the electrons move in orbits of fixed size and energy. Works cited:

T. Hunt Morgan discovers sex-linkage


In 1915, Morgan and his colleagues published “The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity.” And one of its major tenets was, ‘certain characteristics are sex-linked—that is … occur together because they arise on the same chromosome that determines gender. Works cited: web;

Frederick Griffith describes the process of transformation


In the critical experiment, Frederick Griffith (1928) mixed heat-killed S with live R and injected the combination into mice: the mouse died. The dead mouse’s tissues were found to contain live bacteria with smooth coats like S. These bacteria were subsequently able to kill other mice, and continued to do so after several generations in culture. He concluded that something in the heat-killed S bacteria “transformed.” Works cited: web;

Theodosius Dobzhansky publishes Genetics and the Origins of Species


This was a book, the American scientist wrote which was the first substantial synthesis of the subjects and established evolutionary genetics as an independent discipline. Works Cited: The editors of Encyclopedia Britannica.

Ernst Mayr develops the Biological Species Concept


He was an evolutionary biologists who approached Charles Darwin’s species problem with a new definition for species in his book “Systematics and the Origin of Species” (1942 and he wrote that a species is not just a group of morphologically similar individuals, but a group that can breed only among themselves, excluding others. Works Cited: Web;

Jacques Cousteau develops SCUBA


In 1942, the team, Emile Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau co-invented the modern demand regulator and an improved autonomous diving suit. They then redesigned a car regulator and invented a demand regulator that would automatically fresh air when a diver breathed. A year later they began selling the Aqua-Lung. Works Cited: By Mary Bellis, Invetors Expert (Updated February 01, 2016.

Avery, MacLeod and McCarty determined that DNA is the molecule that carries the genetic code


This was an experimental demonstration, reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty, that DNA is the substance that causes bacterial transformation, in an era when it had been widely believed that it was proteins that served the function of carrying genetic information. Works Cited: Web;

Barbara McClintock describes transposons


She was an American scientist and cytogeneticist who discovered transposition and used it to demonstrate that genes are responsible for turning physical characteristics on and off. Because of her work, transposons are now a hot favorite among biologists in the field of gene mainipulation. Works Cited: Web;

Rosalind Franklin works with DNA and X-ray crystallography and develops “Image 51”


Under the supervision of Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling, a PhD student, at King’s College London in Sir John Randall’s group, took an X-ray diffraction image of DNA and it was nicknamed Photograph 51. Works Cited: Web;

Watson and Crick propose the double helix model of DNA structure


In 1951, Watson attended a lecture by Franklin on her walk work on DNA. She had found that DNA can exist in two forms, depending on the relative humidity in the surrounding air. Watson used a muddy recollection of facts presented by Franklin; and he and Crick made a failed model. It caused the head of their unit to tell them to stop DNA research. Works Cited: Web;

Hershey-Chase experiments are published


The Hershey-Chase experiments were a series of experiments conducted in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase that helped to confirm that DNA is genetic material. Works Cited. 1996-2016 MedicineNet, Inc.

Miller-Urey experiments published


It was a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions. It was conducted in 1952 at the University of Chicago and later at University of California, San Diego and published the following year. Works Cited: Web; www.wikipedia

Meselson and Stahl work with DNA replication


This was an experiment by matthew Meselson and Canadian biologist, Mason McDonald, and Canadian nuclear physicist, Amandeep Sehmbi, in 1958 which supported the hypothesis that DNA replication was semiconservative. (when the double stranded DNA helix is replicated, each of the two new double-stranded DNA helices consisted of one strand from the original helix and one newly synthesized. Works Cited: Web;

Nirenberg cracks the genetic code


Marshall Nirenberg and his colleagues focused on how DNA directs protein synthesis and the role of RNA in these processes. Their 1961 experiment, using a synthetic messenger RNA (mRNA) strand that contained only uracils (U), yielded a protein that contained only phenylalanines. Works Cited: web;

Endosymbiosis is described by Lynn Margulis


Margulis, a prolific writer and dynamic speaker, wrote her first article on the endosymbiotic theory in 1967, brought her to the forefront of the controversy over cellular evolution. Works Cited: Web;

Apollo II lands on the moon

July 20 1969

Neil Armstrong descended a ladder with pilot Buzz Aldrin to become the first humans to step onto the surface of the moon. They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft.
Works Cited: Web; www.wikipedia

Theodosius Dobzhansky publishes “Nothing in Science Makes Sense Except in the light of Evolution”


He was an Ukrainian-American geneticist and evolutionist whose work had a major influence on 20th century thought and research on genetics and evolutionary theory. He wrote this essay in 1973, criticizing anti-evolution creationism and espousing theistic evolution. Works Cited: Web;

Australopithicus afarensis nicknamed “Lucy” fossil discovered


Lucy’Al 288-1 was a partial skeleton discovered relatively complete female skeleton, dated to 3.2 million years old, was the most famous individual from this species. She was nicknamed “Lucy” after the song, ‘Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds’ sung by The Beatles. Works Cited: Fran Dorey, Exhibition Project Coordinator Beth Blaxland, Education Project Officer. Last Updated 30 October 2015

Ensatina described a ring species


Robert Stebbins, proposed that the species started off in Northern California and Oregon and then spread south along both sides of the Central valley, which was too dry and hot for salamanders. According to Robert’s hypothesis, as the pioneering populations moved south, they evolved into several subspecies with new color patterns and adaptations for living in different environments.

Deep Sea Hydrothermal vents and associated life around them are discovered


In 1977, scientists exploring the Galapagos Rift along the mid-ocean ridge in the eastern Pacific noticed a series of temperature spikes in their data. They wondered how deep-ocean temperatures could change so drastically-from near freezing 400 degrees C (750 degrees F) in such a short distance. This discovery was – deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Works Cited:

Spliceosomes were discovered and described


The discovery of “split genes” in 1977 was absolutely breathtaking. They wondered, “How could this be?” This amazing sequence arrangement spurred a thrilling and highly competitive search of mechanism. Works Cited: The Journal of Biological Chemistry; January 1, 2010, 285, 1-12

The Sanger Technique is developed


In 1977, Frederick Sanger developed the classical “rapid DNA sequencing” technique, now known as the sanger method, to determine the order of the bases in a strand of DNA. He noted the key role that special enzymes play in this process, used to synthesize short pieces of DNA. Works Cited:

Kary Mullis develops Polymerase Chain Reaction

1983 December 16

He was a Nobel Prize-winning American biochemist, author, and lecturer. Mullis was driving his vehicle late one night with his girlfriend, who was also a chemist at Cetus, when he had the idea to use a pair of primers to bracket the desired DNA sequence and copy it using DNA polymerase. He succeeded in demonstrating PCR December 16, 1983. Works Cited: Web;

Richard L. Bible is executed


Arizona executed 49-year-old Richard Lynn Bible for molesting and fatally bludgeoning 9-year-old Jennifer Wilson in 1988. He asked the U.S. Supreme Court to delay his execution for DNA testing on hairs used as evidence in his trial.

Tommie Lee Andrews is convicted of rape

1988 February 5

Through DNA fingerprints, a jury found Andrews guilty as a convicted serial rapist. This case is significant because this case ended with the first American trial to admit DNA typing into evidence.
Works Cited: Web;

“Reproductive isolation as a consequence of adaptive divergence in Drosophilia pseudoobscrura” published

1989 March 31

According to the biological species concept, speciation is basically a problem of reproductive isolation, a study was performed, and in the study, it is shown that the populations have also developed behavioral isolation as a pleiotropic by-product of this adaptive divergence. Works Cited: Diane M.B. Dodd Evolution Vol. 43, No. 6 (Sept., 1989) p.p. 1308-1311

The Innocence Project is founded


This is a non-profit legal organization that is committed to exonerating wrongly convicted people through the use of DNA-testing and to reforming the criminal justice system to prevent future injustice. It was founded in 1992 by Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld. Works Cited: Web;

CRISPr/CAS9 is identified and described


Francisco Mojca was the first researcher to characterize what is now called CRISPr locus, reported in 1993. He worked on them throughout the 1990’s and in 2000, he recognized that what had been reported as disparate repeat sequences, (he coined the term CRISPr through correspondence with Ruud Jansen. Works Cited: web;

Dolly the sheep is cloned

1996 July 5

Dolly was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer. She was born on 5, July 1996 and had three mothers. (one provided the egg, another the DNA and a third carried the cloned embryo to term.) Works Cited: web;

Sahelanthropus tchadensis fossil discovered

2001 - 2002

The fossils represent the oldest known human ancestor after the split of the human line from that of the chimpanzeez and are dated 6-7 million years old. The discovery was made by a team, led by Michel Brunet, between July 2001 and March 2002. The team announced the new species in 2002. Works Cited: Web; Evan Dorey, Exhibition Project Coordinator. Last Updated: 9 November 2009

Human genome is fully sequenced

2001 February 12

It was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint. After the idea was picked up in 1984 by the U.S. government when the planning started, the project formally launched in 1990 and was declared complete in 2003. Works Cited: Web; www.wikipedia

Homo denisova fossil discovered


A molar tooth found at the archaeological site of Denisova cave provided crucial genetic evidence for the existence of the Denisovans-a hominid species discovered in only 2010. The tooth belonged to a woman who lived more than 50,000 years ago. Works Cited: Michael Greshko, National Geographic Published Nov 16 2015