AP World History Timeline (600-1450)

Period 3 Dark Red-China Pink-Asia Orange-Middle East Yellow-The Americas Green-Africa Blue-Europe Dark Blue-Russia Black-Multiple continents/world interactions


Byzantine Empire

330 CE - 1453 CE

Made of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire, capital of Constantinople
Grew and prospered long after the fall of the Roman Empire.
Justinian's Code, made by Justinian the Great, revived the legal tradition of Rome and remained a foundation of legal knowledge in Europe for centuries.
Byzantine Empire was a fairly wealthy empire but suffered frequent attacks from invaders, cities like Constantinople built extensive walls and defensives in response.

Ghana Empire

Approx. 400 - Approx. 1200

Capital: Kumbai Saleh
Rulers sold gold and ivory to Muslim traders in exchange for salt, copper, cloth, and tools

Middle Ages

476 - 1453

Period in Europe between the fall of the western Roman Empire and the fall of the eastern Roman Empire. Characterized by feudalism, kingdoms, and Catholicism, particularly in the early middle ages. During the high middle ages, new states and greater trade improved life in Europe and weakened feudalism.

Sui Dynasty

581 - 618

United by Sui Yangdi through violence and oppression, ruled through harsh, dictatorial methods. The Grand Canal was built during this dynasty, an important public work for China. The dynasty ended when the people were upset over high taxes, the emperor's dictatorial ways, and the conscription of laborers, causing the emperor to be assassinated.

Tang Dynasty

618 - 907

During this time, China enjoy relative prosperity and stability.
Had a tributary system, other kingdoms and states had to pay money or goods to the Chinese emperor. Expanded the empire's bureaucracy, developed more roads and canals. Experienced a spread in Buddhism.

Start of Islam


Founded by Mohammed, the Hegira, Mohammed's fleeing from Mecca to Medina marks the start of the Muslim calender
-Quran is the sacred book of Islam
-Five Pillars of Islam: Confession of Faith, Prayer, Charity, Fasting, Pilgrimage to Mecca

Taika Reforms (Japan)


Goals: Increase efficiency, put all land under government ownership.
Damaged the feudal lords' power and helped create a powerful centralized government.

Umayyad Caliphate

662 - 750

Capital: Damascus
Were Sunnis, controlled the largest territory of anyone since the Roman Empire.

Silla Kingdom

668 - 935

Had a fairly direct relationship with China, Silla was a tributary state of China and performed ritual kowtow to the Tang emperor. Due to its close relationship, Silla developed many similar aspects to that of China but did have a much more powerful aristocracy than China did.

Mississipian Civilization

Approx. 700 - Approx. 1450

The mound-builders, Cahokia (largest town), practiced large-scale agriculture and had centers of craft and commerce. Practiced animism. Had a rigid class structure with the Great Sun as the chief, had a matrilineal society. Unknown as to why the civilization declined and disappeared entirely.

Fujiwara Clan

710 - Approx. 1185

The Fujiwara family ruled Japan for a period of time, with the emperor acting as a figurehead. Experienced the Heian Period, where culture and literature flourished among the aristocrats, the cultural development did not spread to the peasantry.

Abbasid Caliphate

750 - 1258

Capital: Baghdad
Sunnis. Baghdad was a center of learning, experienced a golden age of learning. Abbasids were influenced by Persia, even during the Islamic Golden Age.

Kievan Rus

882 - 1240

Kievan Rus was a collection of city-states of Slavic peoples. The beginnings of what would become Russia.

The Toltec

Approx. 900 - Approx. 1200

A civilization in northern Mesoamerica, had a capital at Tula. Led by a warrior aristocracy, extracted tribute from conquered peoples. Conquered Mayan settlements and borrowed various ideas from them.

Vietnamese Victory


Vietnam experienced various different conflicts with China throughout their history, including being occupied by China. As the Tang dynasty began to weaken, the Vietnamese began to push the Tang out, and won a major victory against them in 938.

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279

Smaller than the Tang due to nomadic invaders taking over a portion of the land (the Jin). China's bureaucracy expanded, education improved. The extensive bureaucracy was too expensive and hurt the Song. Also, the bureaucracy could not manage the army properly, further weakening the Song.

Holy Roman Empire

962 - 1806

The Germanic king Otto I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor, thus beginning the Holy Roman Empire in Europe. The HRE remained vibrant until the Thirty Years' War (1618-16480, which it was greatly weakened. The Empire finally ended with Napoleon's invasion in 1806.

The Great Schism


The split of the Christian Church into the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church. Catholicism dominated Western Europe, while Orthodox Christianity was primarily in Eastern Europe, like Russia.

Christian Crusades

1095 - 1204

European Catholics wanted to regain access to the Holy Land in the Middle East and decided to invade. The first crusade was the only one the Christians had any success in and took control of Jerusalem in 1099, however Saladin and his Muslim forces took it back in 1187. In the fourth crusade, the crusaders did not even make it to the Holy Land and instead sacked an Italian city, Zara. The Crusades helped opened global trade in Europe, and also helped the Black Death enter Europe.

Minamoto Period

1185 - Approx. 1550

(Japan) Emphasized military prowess, however power became decentralized. Nobles recruited samurai under bushido, their code of chivalry and honor.

Mongol Empire

1206 - 1368

The largest continuous land empire ever to exist in history. The Mongols were ruthless in conquering but brought on the Pax Mongolica to their empire and helped ideas and technologies be exchanged between the different continents and cultures. Ogodei was Genghis' successor and helped keep the empire together.

Delhi Sultanate

1206 - 1526

Muslim rulers who controlled northern India, never organized an efficient bureaucracy and the sultans struggled to impose their policies all throughout India. Imposed a jizya (tax) on all non-Muslims, causing some resentment among native Indians.

Kingdom of Zimbabwe

1220 - 1450

Most powerful of all the East African kingdoms in this time period.
Became prosperous through agriculture, grazing, trade, and gold.
All gold was taxed by the kings.

Mali Empire

1235 AD - Approx. 1450 AD

Founded by Sundiata. Had great, wealthy cities like Timbuktu and Gao, who were centers of Islamic life and learning in the region. Mansa Musa was also a king of Mali.

Yuan Dynasty

1279 - 1368

Kublai Khan (a Mongol) conquered the Song Dynasty and formed the Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan brought prosperity to China through cultural exchange and improved trade with other countries. However, the Yuan alienated many Chinese and often valued foreigners over native-born Chinese.

Beginning of Ottoman Empire

1299 - Approx. 1450

(Continues on to 1918)
During this time period, the Ottoman Empire was on the rise, with several strong sultans who expanded the empire and strengthened it. The Empire reached its greatest extent under Suleiman I in the mid 1500s. The Ottomans used Devshirme and made Christian boys into janissaries (elite soldiers) or other bureaucrats.



570 - 632

Creator of Islam, unified the Arabian Peninsula and spread his teachings everywhere he went.

Abu Bakr

573 - 634

1st Caliph of the Islamic Empire, was chosen by the Umma leaders, was a friend of Muhammed.

Shotoku Taishi

574 - 622

A Japanese Prince who attempted to implement Chinese practices in Japan.

Empress Wu Zetian

624 - 705

Ruled during the Tang Dynasty, tried to make Buddhism the state religion of China, but after her death, Buddhists were persecuted.


742 - 814

A Frankish king who conquered large portions of land in Europe and was named Emperor of the Romans by the Pope in 800. His rule set the stage for the Holy Roman Empire to be formed over a hundred years after his death.

Otto I

936 - 973

First Holy Roman Emperor, originally a Germanic king.

Genghis Khan

1162 - 1227

A Mongol, born in East Asia, original name was Temujin. He and his Mongol armies conquered and made the largest continuous empire ever. Genghis Khan was ruthless in war but brought peace after he conquered.

Kublai Khan

1215 - 1294

The Mongolian who conquered China and formed the Yuan Dynasty.

Marco Polo

1254 - 1324

Marco Polo was a Venetian traveler who travelled to China and stayed there for a period time, eventually bringing back riches and information about his experiences back to Europe. He cultivated a great interest about China in Europe.

Mansa Musa

Approx. 1280 - 1337

Musa I of Mali
Was Muslim and very wealthy, during his pilgrimage to Mecca he had an extremely extravagant caravan and gave much wealth to people during his travels.

Ibn Battuta

1304 - 1369

Muslim traveler and scholar from Morocco who travelled most of the known Islamic world as well as numerous other lands.