AP Timeline

Events

Timelines

Early Agricultural Societies

10000 BCE - 600 BCE

In response to warming climates at the end of the last Ice Age, some groups adapted to the environment in new ways, while others remained hunter-foragers. Agriculturalists also had a massive impact on the environment through intensive cultivation of selected plants to the exclusion of others, through the construction of irrigation systems, and through the use of domesticated animals for food and for labor. Pastoralists were mobile, they rarely accumulated large amounts of material possessions, which would have been a hindrance when they changed grazing areas

Early Urban Societies

5000 BCE - 600 BCE

All civilizations contained cities and generated complex institutions, such as political bureaucracies, armies, and religious hierarchies. As civilizations expanded, they had to balance their need for more resources with environmental constraints such as the danger of undermining soil fertility. Finally, the accumulation of wealth in settled communities spurred warfare between communities and/or with pastoralists; this violence drove the development of new technologies of war and urban defense.

Trade Writing

3500 BCE - 2000 BCE

Trade Writing is The ability to use written symbols to record quantity and meaning is a giant stride in the development of civilization. The Sumerians, in southern Mesopotamia, were the first to develop written language around 3500 B.C.E. Their system of writing was cuneiform, began as literal representations of quantity and pictures. Their writing later evolved into becoming abstract characters and became phonetic

Ethiopia

3400 BCE

The Nile River enabled Egyptians to grow crops in the highlands of Ethiopia

Sumerians

3000 B.C.
  • The Sumerians (of Southern Mesopotamia) were the first to develop written language for Trade Writing.

Judaism

1800 BC - Present

The association of monotheism with Judaism was further developed with the codification of the Hebrew Scriptures. The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman empires conquered various Jewish states at different points in time. These conquests contributed to the growth of Jewish diasporic communities around the Mediterranean and Middle East.

Hinduism

1500 BCE

The core beliefs outlined in the Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis of the Vedic religions (later known as Hinduism).

Role of religion in the state

600 B.C.E. - 600 C.E

Religion had a big role in the states as it influenced laws and kings and basically everybody in the state. Examples are Buddhism and Christianity.

Imperial Expansion

600 BCE - 600 CE

As the early states and empires grew in number, size, and population, they frequently competed for resources and came into conflict with one another. In quest of land, wealth, and security, some empires expanded dramatically. As these empires expanded their boundaries, they also faced the need to develop policies and procedures to govern their relationships with ethnically and culturally diverse populations: sometimes to integrate them within an imperial society and sometimes to exclude them. By expanding their boundaries too far, they created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage. They also experienced environmental, social, and economic problems when they over exploited their lands and subjects and permitted excessive wealth to be concentrated in the hands of privileged classes.

Collapse of States and Empires

600 BCE - 600 CE

Empires typically collapsed in part due to issues with collecting taxes. Another factor in imperial collapse was government’s inability to assert control over powerful landowners or independent regions. Thousands of years of destructive agricultural practices finally took their toll on land in Africa and Eurasia.

Confucianism

600 BCE - 300 BCE

Confucianism is a way of life taught by Confucius in China in the 6th–5th century BCE. Confucianism is perhaps best understood as an all-encompassing humanism that neither denies nor slights heaven.

Pastoralism in Afro-Eurasian grasslands

600 BCE

Different crops or animals were domesticated in the various core regions, depending on available local flora and fauna.

Achaemenid Empire

558 BCE - 330 BCE

The Persian Empire went through several permutations. Achaemenid Empire, (550–330 BCE), was the first Persian Empire. Alexander the great ended them.

Philip II's conquest of Greece

338 BCE

Han Dynasty Rules

220 BC - 220 AD

The Han Dynasty was one of the longest of China’s major dynasties. In terms of power and prestige, the Han Dynasty in the East rivalled its almost contemporary Roman Empire in the West. Han period as an inspiring model of a united empire and self-perpetuating government.

Roman Empire Rules

31 BC - 476 CE

The Roman Empire was the most extensive political and social structure in western civilization. By 285 CE the empire had grown too vast to be ruled from the central government at Rome and so was divided by Emperor Diocletian into a Western and an Eastern Empire. The influence of the Roman Empire on western civilization was profound in its lasting contributions to virtually every aspect of western culture.

Roman Empire Control

200 CE - 284 CE

Dozens of emperors fought for control of the Roman Empire, and ultimately the empire was divided in two, which contributed to the collapse of the western portion

The Gupta Empire Rules

380 AD - 550 CE

The Gupta Empire stretched across northern, central and parts of southern India. It began a period of overall prosperity and growth that continued for the next two and half centuries which came to be known as a “Golden Age” in India’s history.

Diasporic communities

600 CE - 1450 CE

Diasporic communities were set up along important trade routes, so that they may introduce their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture.

Free and unfree labor, mixing of cultures, peoples

1450 CE - 1750 CE

The Atlantic system involved the movement of goods, wealth, and free and unfree laborers, and the mixing of African, American, and European cultures and peoples.

Globalization

1450 CE - 1750 CE

The interconnection of the Eastern and Western hemispheres made possible by transoceanic voyaging marked a key transformation of this period. Germs carried to the Americas ravaged the indigenous peoples, while the global exchange of crops and animals altered agriculture, diets, and populations around the planet.

Little Ice Age

1500 CE - 1600 CE

During this time, Europe and neighboring countries along the North Atlantic experienced an extremely cold climate, and the Little Ice Age affected agriculture, health, economics, social strife, emigration, art, and literature. Diseases, like malaria, came along with this Little Ice Age and killed mass numbers.

Thirty years war

1618 - 1648

A series of war in central Europe, between protestant and catholic states and the holy Roman Empire.

Enlightenment

1700 CE - 1800 CE

Enlightenment ideas questioned established traditions in all of the areas of life, often preceded revolutions and rebellions against existing governments. Enlightenment ideas can be found in the American Declaration of Independence, French Declaration of rights of Man and Citizen, and Bolivar’s Jamaica Letter. Enlightenment ideas caused people to challenge the existing-notions of social relations. This contributed to the expansion of rights, abolition of slavery and the end of serfdom.

Transoceanic empires

1750 - 1900

In industrialized states workers organized themselves so that they could improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages, while others opposed visions of society, including Marxism

Reformist and revolutionary movements

1750 CE - 1900 CE

American colonial subjects led to a series of rebellions, which facilitated the emergence of independent states in the United States. Revolutionary movements also started up and they include the American Revolution, and the Latin American independence movements, as well as French subjects rebelling against their monarchy.

Industrial Production Starts

1760

The industrial production began during the Industrial Revolution, in England, 1760. Europe’s location on the Atlantic, with numerous harbors and ports, gave it access to natural resources and markets outside England’s borders. The demand for processed goods increased, so jobs for the industries hired more workers so they could satisfy the demands at a faster rate. Unfortunately, the structure and conditions of the industry were harsh on the workers, tiring them out and exposing them to diseases within the unsanitary conditions of the factories.

Boston Massacre

1770

Colonial resistance to the taxes of the British government led to Boston Massacre when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, killing 5 men.

Bunker Hill

1775

Colonial forces inflicted heavy casualties on the British regiment of General William Howe at Breed’s Hill in Boston.

Declaration of Independence

1776

With the Revolutionary War in full swing, a growing majority of the colonists had come to favor independence from Britain. On July 4, the Continental Congress voted to adopt the Declaration of Independence.

French Revolution

1789 CE - 1799 CE

It led to the end of the monarchy. The Revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte took power in November 1799 and began his dictatorship. King Louis XVI was executed.

Qing Challenged

1800 CE

The Qing had been challenged and undermined by a number of factors

Piracy died

1830 CE

Piracy died out from the pirates being combatted by natives of the Western Europe and North America nations.

Opium War

1839 CE - 1860 CE

The British defeated China in the two Opium Wars and it exposed the political and military weakness of the Qing regime.

Meiji Japan

1868 CE

They emerged due to the expansion of the U.S. and European influence over Tojkugawa Japan.

Naoroji

1895 CE

Naoroji at age 19 became the youngest Indian to be called to the bar in England.

Transnationalism

1900 CE - Present

Nationalist leaders and parties in Asia and Africa challenged imperial rule, leaders and parties include the Indian national congress, Ho Chi Minn in French Indochina (Vietnam), and Kwame Nkrumah in British Gold Coast(Ghana)

Global conflict

1900 - Present
  • Imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan, competition over resources, and economic crisis endangered by the great depression.
  • World War 2: Nazi ideologies, and the hatred of the treaty signed in World War 1 and the lust for power from Hitler and his followers was a main reason for the start of World War 2.

End of European dominance, independence movements

1900 - Present

At the beginning of the 20th century a global political order run by the European existed, it included the United States, Russia, and Japan. As time passed by people and states challenged this order so that they could redistribute power within the existing order and to restructure empires. Some colonies negotiated their independence, while others achieved independence through armed struggle.

Post-colonial independence, migration

1900 - Present

Transnational movements such as communism, Pan-Arab-ism, and Pan African-ism sought to unite people across national boundaries. These movements challenged racial ideologies because the people supporting the movements want to unite people across national borders.

British and the French splitting Middle East

1916 CE
  • The British would have control of what is now Iraq, Kuwait, and Jordan.
  • While the French were given Syria, Lebanon, and Southern Turkey.

Communism

1917 - 1991

Communism is the doctrine of the conditions of the liberation of the proletariat.

Dominion of Pakistan

1947 CE

The Partition of India, partitioning of the British Indian Empire into India and Pakistan, led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan. The Dominion of Pakistan splits into Pakistan and Bangladesh and the Union of India

Ottoman Empire

Ottoman empire

1299 - 1923

Using christian to islam

1300 CE

The Ottoman Empire began to use Christian boys from ages 8 to 18 to be recruited by force to serve the Ottoman government and converted to Islam, and this came to pass as the Devshirme.

Ottoman-Safavid War

1618 CE

The Ottoman Empire fights against Safavid Persia over control of Mesopotamia

Bahnsle

Bahnsle Attacks

1660 CE

He led many attacks against the Mughals and their port of Surat.

"Lord of the Universe"

1674 CE

Bahnsle received the title “lord of the universe” for his persistence to challenge the Mughals and build a Hindu Kingdom in Marharashta.

French Indochina war

Bao Dai

January 8, 1926 - August 25, 1945

As part of a post-colonial solution, the French re-installed Bao Dai as head of state of Vietnam under the French Union.

Bao Dai

January 8, 1926 - August 25, 1945

As part of a post-colonial solution, the French re-installed Bao Dai as head of state of Vietnam under the French Union.

French idochina war

1946 CE - 1954 CE

The French landed a military force at Haiphong.
Negotiations then took place about the future for Vietnam as a state within the French Union.
Vietnam created its first constitution.

Holocaust

Holocaust

1933 - 1945

The holocaust, Hitler took over, gassed six million Jews.

Hitler dies

1945 CE

Hitler dies (presumably gunshot) and World War II ends.

Cold War

1947 - 1991

The Cold War came due to the global balance of economic and political power shift after World War II.

The Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution

10,000 B.C. - 4,000 B.C.
  • The Neolithic Revolution (Agricultural Revolution) begins in Mesopotamia and Transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture (Farming and Animal domestication)

Southern Mesopotamia

6000 BCE

Early settlers irrigated the land of Southern Mesopotamia along the banks of the rivers to grow crops.

Northern Mesopotamia

6000 BCE

Early settlers farmed Northern Mesopotamia’s land

Ziggurats

5200 BC
  • Mesopotamian people begin to construct Ziggurats, for religious practices and offerings for god in belief it would make crops more fertile.

Period of Egypt

Period of Egypt

3100 BCE - 2686 BCE

Egypt immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Naqada III archaeological period until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom.

Hieroglyphs

2800 BCE

Egypt contacted Mesopotamia and then developed a writing system too (Hieroglyphs).

The Corvée System

2600 BCE

The Corvée System was created to require subjects to provide labor as payment of tax. Egyptian Old Kingdom (ca 2613 BC) onward, (the 4th Dynasty), corvée labour helped in 'government' projects.

Hitties

Hitties (Indo Europeans & Mesopotamians)

1800 BCE - 1200 BCE

developed a culture apparently from the indigenous Hatti (and possibly the Hurrian) people, and expanded their territories into an empire which rivaled, and threatened, the established nation of Egypt.

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire

27 BC - 1453 CE