Social 11: Cold War Time Line


Soviet Spy defected to Canada


Soviet spy Igor Gouzenko defects to Canada and exposes a Russian spy ring in Canada.

United Nations was created

June 1945

The United Nations is created in San Francisco. Canada is one of the original members to sign the Charter. The original goal of the UN was to prevent another global conflict.

NATO and Warsaw Pact


NATO – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – is created as a military defense alliance because of fears created by the Cold War with Russia and its allies. In response The Eastern Bloc countries sign Warsaw Pact in 1955.

Korea War

1950 - 1953

Korea: Canada sends 27, 000 troops to the Korean War in a United Nations-supported military action. This was peacemaking.

Lester Pearson joined UN


Lester Pearson becomes Canada’s ambassador to the United Nations.

First U.N. peacekeeping


Suez, Egypt: First U.N. peacekeeping troops, negotiated by Lester Pearson, prevents war.

won Nobel Peace Prize


Lester Pearson wins the Nobel Pease Prize.

canceled the Arrow


Diefenbaker’s Conservatives cancel the Avro Arrow project, which is a state-of-the-art supersonic jet aircraft.

Cuban Missile Crisis


Cuban Missile Crisis: The U.S. and Soviet Union come close to nuclear war. Prime Minister Diefenbaker preferred that the United Nations send a fact-finding mission to Cuba, and implied that he did not believe the U.S. photographs. He was reluctant to have Canada drawn into a major conflict that seemed largely rooted into a major conflict that seemed largely rooted in U.S. policy and interest. So at first, he refused to place Canada’s NORAD forces on alert. Nor did it allow U.S. planes with atomic weapons to land at Canadian bases.

peacekeeping mission to Cyprus


Canada participates in a U.N. peacekeeping mission to Cyprus. Cyprus is located on the juncture of Asia and Europe. In the east of Mediterranean Sea.

Vietnam War

1965 - 1973

Vietnam War: Pearson criticized Operation Rolling Thunder, which means he did not support U.S’s policy.

recognized Communist China


Trudeau’s government officially recognizes Communist China (rather than Taiwan).

Trudeau visits China

October 10, 1973

Pierre Trudeau visits Communist China on a peace mission.

Trudeau visits Cuba


Pierre Trudeau visits Communist Cuba

end of the Cold War


Berlin Wall comes down, symbolizing the Cold Was in Europe was over.

Canada supported in the Gulf War


Canada sends troops to support the U.S. in the Gulf War against Iraq. This action was Peacekeeping.

Soviet Union dissolves

26 Dec 1991

Soviet Union dissolves into 15 countries.

Canada in Bosnia and Croatia

1992 - 1995

In 1991, ethnic wars broke out in the former Yugoslavia. Sloban Milosevic, leader of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, began to talk about establishing a greater Serbia by uniting all the Serbian population from surrounding states into one country.

Canada in Somalia


Somalia: A few low-ranking officers had committed racist crime by torturing and beating a Somali teenager to death. In 1995, the Airborne Regiment was disbanded.

Civil war and chaos Haiti

1993 - 1997

Civil war and chaos in Haiti: Canada sends soldiers and later police.

Canada in Rwanda

1994 - 1995

Rwanda was torn apart by ethnic rivalries. France and Belgium, the former colonial forces in the area, sent troops to try to control the slaughter. A small detachment of U.N. peacekeepers was also sent under the command of Canadian Major General Romeo Dallaire. There was a huge genocide happened in Rwanda. But US refused to help them at first because they didn’t want be involved in the internal conflict inside Rwanda. So UN didn’t do anything. After the massive wave of killing in Rwanda, The UN and countries who around Rwanda began to help the refugees and try to stop the conflict.