Seminar in Solo Vocal Literature Composer Timeline

Composers

Joseph Haydn

1732 - 1809

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

1756 - 1791

Ludwig van Beethoven

1770 - 1827

Franz Schubert

1797 - 1828

Hector Berlioz

1803 - 1869

Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy

1809 - 1847

Robert Schumann

1810 - 1856

Franz Liszt

1811 - 1886

Charles Gounod

1818 - 1893

Clara Wieck Schumann

1819 - 1896

Pauline Viardot

1821 - 1910

Johannes Brahms

1833 - 1897

Léo Delibes

1836 - 1891

Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky

1839 - 1881

Pyotr Tchaikovsky

1840 - 1893

Antonín Dvořák

1841 - 1904

Emmanuel Chabrier

1841 - 1894

Edvard Grieg

1843 - 1907

Gabriel Fauré

1845 - 1924

Henri Duparc

1848 - 1933

Ernest Chausson

1855 - 1899

Hugo Wolf

1860 - 1903

Gustav Mahler

1860 - 1911

Anton Stepanovich Arensky

1861 - 1906

Claude Debussy

1862 - 1918

Claude Debussy

1862 - 1918

Richard Strauss

1864 - 1929

Jean Sibelius

1865 - 1957

Amy Cheney Beach

1867 - 1944

Ralph Vaughan Williams

1872 - 1958

Sergei Rachmaninoff

1873 - 1943

Arnold Schönberg

1874 - 1951

Reynaldo Hahn

1874 - 1947

Maurice Ravel

1875 - 1937

Roger Quilter

1877 - 1953

André Caplet

1878 - 1925

Frank Bridge

1879 - 1941

Richard Hageman

1882 - 1966

Alban Berg

1885 - 1935

Arthur Butterworth

1885 - 1910

Rebecca Clarke

1886 - 1979

Ivor Gurney

1890 - 1937

Ivor Gurney

1890 - 1937

Herbert Howells

1892 - 1983

Lili Boulanger

1893 - 1918

Peter Warlock

1894 - 1930

Erich Korngold (1897-1957)

1897 - 1957

Charles Ives

1897 - 1954

Francis Poulenc

1899 - 1963

John Duke

1899 - 1984

Kurt Weill

1900 - 1950

Gerald Finzi

1901 - 1956

John Work

1901 - 1967

William Walton

1902 - 1983

Benjamin Britten

1913 - 1976

Margaret Bonds

1913 - 1972

Leonard Bernstein

1918 - 1990

Ned Rorem

1923 - Present

Lee Hoiby

1926 - 2011

Dominick Argento

1927 - Present

William Bolcom

1938 - Present

Libby Larsen

1950 - Present

John Musto

1954 - Present

Lori Laitman

1955 - Present

Poets

Antoine Houdar de La Motte

1672 - 1731

Christian Fürchtegott Gellert

1715 - 1769

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock

1724 - 1803

Christian Felix Weiße

1726 - 1804

Johann Georg Jacobi

1740 - 1814

Anne Hunter

1742 - 1821

Joachim Heinrich Campe

1746 - 1818

Ludwig Heinrich Christoph Hölty

1748 - 1776

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

1749 - 1832

Friedrich Leopold zu Stolberg

1750 - 1819

Friedrich von Matthisson

1761 - 1831

Ernst Schulze

1761 - 1833

Johann Gaudenz von Salis-Seewis

1762 - 1834

Clemens Maria Wenzeslaus von Brentano

1778 - 1842

Matthäus Casimir von Collin

1779 - 1824

Marianne von Willemer

1784 - 1860

Justinus Kerner

1786 - 1862

Johann Mayrhofer

1787 - 1836

Friedrich Rückert

1788 - 1866

Heinrich Heine

1797 - 1856

Jacob Nicolaus von Craigher de Jachelutta

1797 - 1855

Ludwig Rellstab

1799 - 1860

Nikolaus Lenau

1802 - 1850

Julius Mosen

1803 - 1867

Fyodor Tyutchev

1803 - 1873

Eduard Mörike

1804 - 1875

Fanny Hensel-Mendelsohn

1805 - 1847

Robert Reinick

1805 - 1852

Ferdinand Freiligrath

1810 - 1876

Hermann von Gilm

1812 - 1864

Mikhail Lermontov

1814 - 1841

Aldolf Friedrich Graf von Schack

1815 - 1894

Emanuel Geibel

1815 - 1884

Aleksey Tolstoy

1817 - 1875

Friedrich von Bodenstedt

1819 - 1892

Klaus Groth

1819 - 1899

Hermann Lingg

1820 - 1905

Henrik Ibsen

1828 - 1906

Richard Leander

1830 - 1889

Karl Lemcke

1831 - 1913

Felix Dahn

1832 - 1912

Gustav Pfleger-Moravský

1833 - 1875

Adolf Heyduk

1835 - 1923

Aleksey Apukhtin

1840 - 1893

Ernst Josephson

1851 - 1906

Johannes Schlaf

1862 - 1941

Richard Dehmel

1863 - 1920

Karl Henckell

1864 - 1929

Siegfried Trebitsch

1869 - 1956

Glafira Galina

1873 - 1942

Joseph Marx

1882 - 1964

Major Historical Events

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

Napoleonic Wars

1803 - 1815

World War 1

1914 - 1918

Russian Revolution

1917

World War 2

1939 - 1945

Historical Events

Seven Years' War

1756

Frederick the Great again precipitates a European conflict, marching without warning into Saxony and launching the Seven Years' War

Halley's Comet

1758

A comet returns exactly at the time predicted by English astronomer Edmond Halley, and is subsequently known by his name

Seven Years' War Ends

1763

A treaty signed in Paris ends the Seven Years' War between Britain, France and Spain

Russo-Turkish War

1768

A border incident at Balta, in the southern Ukraine, sparks a war between Russia and Turkey that will last six years

Triangular Trade

1770

The triangular trade, controlled from Liverpool, ships millions of Africans across the Atlantic as slaves

Captain Cook, HMS Resolution

1772

Captain Cook sets off, in HMS Resolution, on his second voyage to the southern hemisphere

American Revolution Begins

1775

The first shot of the American Revolution is fired in a skirmish between redcoats and militiamen at Lexington, on the road to Concord

Treaty of Paris

1783

In the Treaty of Paris, negotiated by Adams, Franklin and Jay, the British government recognizes US independence

First Mail Coach

1784

The first mail coach leaves Bristol for London, introducing a new era of faster transport

Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade

1786

The Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is founded in London, with a strong Quaker influence

Beginning of the Jacobins

1789

A left-wing political club begins to meet in a Jacobin convent in Paris, thus becoming known as the Jacobins

Napoleon and the Jacobins

1791

Stationed at Valence, Napoleon becomes president of the local Jacobin club and makes radical speeches against the nobility and clergy

Beginning of the French Revolutionary Wars

1792

France declares war on the Austrian emperor, an event that plunges Europe into more than 20 years of conflict

The Terror

1793

The Terror begins in republican France, with executions rising to more than 3000 in December

Napoleon in the Eye of the Public

1795

The 26-year-old Napoleon Bonaparte comes to public attention for his part in saving the Convention in Paris from an assault by rebels

Rosetta Stone Discovered

1799

Napoleon's soldiers discover a black basalt slab, the Rosetta Stone, near the village of Rashid in Egypt

France/Britain First Census

1801

Both France and Britain, engaged against each other in the Napoleonic Wars, take the first census of their populations

Louisiana Purchase

1803

In the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson buys from Napoleon nearly a million square miles at a knock-down price, doubling the size of the US

Slave Trade Abolished (Britain/America)

1807

Legislation abolishing the slave trade is passed in both Britain and America

Napoleon enters Moscow

1812

After victory at Borodino, Napoleon enters Moscow to find the city abandoned and burning
Napoleon arrives back in Paris ahead of the remains of his army, after losing half a million men in the Russian snows

War of 1812 Begins

1812

Damage to US trade by British orders in council prompts war (the War of 1812) between the two nations

Treaty of Ghent

1814

Britain and the United States sign the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812

Elba Exile

1814

Napoleon goes into exile on the island of Elba, which he immediately treats as a miniature state in need of improvement

Waterloo

1815

Napoleon slips away from Elba with a fleet of small vessels and lands on the coast of France The English and Prussian generals Wellington and Blücher defeat Napoleon in a closely fought battle at Waterloo

Napoleon Dies

1820

Napoleon dies on St Helena, after six years of captivity

The Eastern Question

1820

The Eastern Question, concerning Turkey's ability to control its vast empire, becomes a persistent nineteenth-century theme

Victoria Made Heir

1830

The death of the last infant cousin senior to her in the royal succession makes Victoria heir to the British throne

HMS Beagle Sails

1831

HMS Beagle sails from Plymouth to survey the coasts of the southern hemisphere, with Charles Darwin as the expedition's naturalist

Victorian Era Begins

1837

The 18-year-old Victoria comes to the throne in Britain, beginning the long Victorian era

Oberlin Accepts Women

1837

Oberlin College in Ohio becomes the first in the USA to enroll women as degree students

Communist Manifesto

1848

The Communist Manifesto, by Marx and Engels, is published in Paris with the ringing slogan: 'Workers of the world, unite!’

Habsburgs Regain Power

1849

The Habsburgs recover power in both Austria and Hungary

California Gold Rush

1849

The gold rush to California gathers pace during 1849, causing the prospectors to become known as 'forty-niners'

Neanderthal Man Discovered

1856

The first Neanderthal man to be discovered is unearthed by quarry workers in the Neander valley, near Düsseldorf

On the Origin of Species

1859

Charles Darwin puts forward the theory of evolution in On the Origin of Species, the result of 20 years' research

American Civil War Begins

1861

Shots are fired against the Federal military garrison in Fort Sumter, in Charleston harbour, launching the American Civil War

Lincoln Assassinated

1865

On a visit to a Washington theatre, Lincoln is assassinated in his box by John Wilkes Booth

Mendel Discoveries Presented

1865

Gregor Mendel reads a paper to the Natural History Society in Brno describing his discoveries in the field of genetics

Suez Canal Opened

1869

Thousands of distinguished guests assemble at Port Said for the opening of the Suez Canal

Woman's Declaration of Rights

1876

Susan B. Anthony presents a Woman's Declaration of Rights at the US centennial Fourth of July celebrations

Phonograph Patented

1877

The human voice is recorded for the first time when Thomas Edison recites 'Mary had a little lamb' into his newly patented phonograph

Light Bulb Invented

1879

Thomas Edison develops a long-lasting carbon filament light bulb (traditionally 40 hours) and is able to light his Menlo Park laboratory with 30 bulbs

Ellis Island Opens

1892

Ellis Island in New York Bay opens as the point of reception for arriving immigrants

Gandhi Encounter

1893

Mahatma Gandhi, travelling with a first-class ticket, is forcibly ejected from the carriage at Pietermaritzburg because of his colour

Sino-Japanese War

1894

Japan and China go to war over Korea, with disastrous results for China

Lenin Arrested

1895

Lenin is arrested in St Petersburg, along with other members of the Union for the Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class

X-rays Discovered

1895

German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovers rays that can penetrate light-proof barriers, and names them x-rays because their nature is as yet unknown

Radium Isolated

1898

Marie and Pierre Curie isolate the element radium, working without any protection because unaware of the danger of radioactivity

Spanish-American War Ends

1898

In the Treaty of Paris, ending the Spanish-American War, Spain cedes Puerto Rico and Cuba to the USA

Open Trading Policy with China Proposed

1899

US Secretary of State John Hay circulates a proposal that western powers should adopt an open-to-all trading policy in China

Iskra ('The Spark')

1900

Lenin and comrades launch in Munich a radical newspaper, Iskra ('the spark')

Victorian Era Ends

1901

Queen Victoria dies at Osborne House, on the Isle of Wight, after 63 years on the throne

What is to be Done?

1901

In his pamphlet What is to be done? Lenin argues for early action to promote revolution

Guantanamo Bay Initiated

1903

Cuba is forced to accept a permanent US military presence in Guantanamo Bay

First Flight

1903

Orville Wright travels 40 yards in the first successful powered flight, at Kitty Hawk in North Carolina

Bolsheviks Appear

1903

Lenin's supporters become known as the Bolsheviks ('majority') as opposed to the Mensheviks ('minority') after a split at the party's Second Congress

Russo-Japanese War Begins

1904

A surprise Japanese attack on Russian warships in Port Arthur launches the Russo-Japanese War for influence in Far East

Hitler Moves to Vienna

1905

Hitler moves to Vienna, hoping to be a painter, but is twice rejected as a student by the Academy of Fine Arts

First Soviet Introduced

1905

The first soviet ("council") of workers is set up in St Petersburg, introducing a word of great significance in Russian Communist history

Germany's Battleship Production

1906

In direct response to Britain's new Dreadnought, Germany increases the production of battleships

Satyagraha Initiated

1906

Mahatma Gandhi, confronted by racial discrimination in South Africa, launches a programme of passive resistance (satyagraha)

HMS Dreadnought Launched

1906

Britain launches HMS Dreadnought, the first of a massive new class of battleship

'Speak Softly'

1907

President Roosevelt sends a fleet of warships on a goodwill tour of the world that also demonstrates US power

First Model T

1908

The first Model T Ford rolls off the production line at the Piquette Avenue Plant in Detroit

First Flight Across English Channel

1909

Louis Blériot is the first to fly across the English Channel, winning the £1000 prize offered by the Daily Mail

Korea Annexed

1910

Japan annexes Korea as a colony, to be controlled by a Japanese governor-general

Churchill Appears

1910

Winston Churchill becomes home secretary in Asquith's Liberal government

Cultural Events

Mass in B Minor

1750

Shortly before his death (in 1750) J.S. Bach completes his Mass in B Minor, worked on over many years

Domenico Scarlatti, death

1751

By the time of his death the prolific output of Domenico Scarlatti includes 555 sonatas, all but a few for his own instrument, the harpsichord

Haydn and the Esterházy family

1758

Joseph Haydn enters the service of the Esterházy family, and stays with them for twenty-nine years

6-year-old Mozart

1762

6-year-old Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart plays for the Habsburg empress Maria Theresa

Gluck's Orfeo ed Eurydice

1762

The intensely dramatic music of Gluck's Orfeo ed Eurydice introduces a much needed reform in the conventions of opera

Johann Christian and London

1762

Johann Sebastian Bach's youngest son, Johann Christian, moves to London and becomes known as the English Bach

7-year-old Mozart

1763

7-year-old Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart begins a three-year concert tour of Europe

The Sorrows of Young Werther

1774

Goethe's romantic novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther, brings him an immediate European reputation
Goethe's play Götz von Berlichingen, a definitive work of Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress), has its debut

Figaro

1775

Figaro makes his first appearance on stage in Beaumarchais' The Barber of Seville

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

1776

English historian Edward Gibbon publishes the first volume of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

The Critique of Pure Reason

1781

German philosopher Immanuel Kant publishes the first of his three 'critiques', The Critique of Pure Reason

Mozart to Vienna

1781

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, now 25, leaves Salzburg to settle in Vienna

Piano Variations on a March by Dressler

1782

12-year-old Ludwig van Beethoven publishes his first composition, Piano Variations on a March by Dressler

The Robbers

1782

Friedrich von Schiller's youthful and anarchic play The Robbers causes a sensation when performed in Mannheim

Marriage of Figaro

1786

Mozart's Marriage of Figaro premieres in Vienna and then has a huge success in Pragueå

Don Giovanni

1787

Mozart's opera Don Giovanni has its premiere in Prague

Haydn to England

1790

Joseph Haydn sets off for England, where impresario Johann Peter Salomon presents his London symphonies

Così fan Tutte

1790

Mozart's opera Così fan Tutte has its premiere in Vienna, in the court theatre of Joseph II

The Magic Flute

1791

Mozart's opera The Magic Flute has its premiere in Vienna in a popular theatre run by the librettist, Emanuel Shikaneder

Mozart's Requiem Mass

1791

A stranger arrives in Vienna with a mysterious commission for Mozart to write a requiem mass, just months before the composer's death

Mozart, death

1791

Mozart dies, at the age of just 35, leaving his Requiem unfinished

Beethoven to Vienna

1792

Beethoven leaves Bonn and goes to Vienna to study composition with Haydn

Goethe and Schiller

1794

Goethe and Schiller become friends, and together create the movement known as Weimar classicism

Paganini, debut

1794

Virtuoso violinist Nicolo Paganini gives his first public performances, in churches in his native Genoa

Beethoven, Vienna debut

1795

Beethoven makes his first public appearance in Vienna as a pianist, playing either his first or second piano concerto

Lyrical Ballads

1798

English poets Wordsworth and Coleridge jointly publish Lyrical Ballads, a milestone in the Romantic movement

Beethoven, deafness begins

1800

Beethoven seeks medical advice for a very alarming condition, an increasing deafness

Beethoven 3

1804

Beethoven changes the dedication of his third symphony on hearing that his hero, Napoleon, has made himself an emperor

Fidelio, 1st version

1805

The first version of Beethoven's only opera, Fidelio, is performed in Vienna under the title Leonore

Pastoral Symphony

1808

Beethoven's sixth symphony (the Pastoral) has its first performance in Vienna

Beethoven's Mass in D

1814

Beethoven's Mass in D (the Missa Solemnis) has its first performance in Vienna, though still incomplete The final version of Beethoven's opera Fidelio has its premiere in Vienna

The Barber of Seville

1816

Rossini's opera The Barber of Seville has its premiere in Rome

Keats, death

1820

English poet John Keats dies in Rome at the age of twenty-five

Der Freischutz

1821

Carl Maria von Weber's opera Der Freischutz has its premiere in Berlin

Liszt, virtuoso pianist

1823

12-year-old Hungarian pianist Franz Liszt wins a reputation as a virtuoso performer

Die Schöne Müllerin

1823

Austrian composer Franz Schubert writes the song cycle Die Schöne Müllerin ('The beautiful miller's wife’)

Beethoven 9

1824

Beethoven's ninth symphony (the Choral, because of its finale, setting Schiller's Ode to Joy) has its first performance in Vienna

Rossini to Paris

1824

Italian composer Gioacchino Rossini moves to Paris, where he becomes director of the Théatre Italien

Schubert's 'Great' Symphony

1825

Franz Schubert composes his 'Great' C major symphony (previously often attributed to 1828)

Weber's Oberon

1826

Carl Maria von Weber's opera Oberon has its premiere (in London, at Covent Garden)

Rossini's William Tell

1829

Gioacchino Rossini's opera William Tell has its premiere in Paris

Hebrides Overture

1829

German composer Felix Mendelssohn visits the Hebrides and see's Fingal's Cave, later the theme of his Hebrides Overture

Symphonie fantastique

1830

The Symphonie fantastique by French composer Hector Berlioz has its premiere in Paris

Schumann's Papillons

1832

Robert Schumann's first published composition is Papillons ('Butterflies'), twelve short dance pieces for piano

Goethe's Faust

1832

The full text of Goethe's Faust, Parts 1 and 2, is published a few months after the poet's death

Emerson's Nature

1836

In his essay, Nature, Ralph Waldo Emerson sets out the fundamentals of the philosophy of Transcendentalism

Chopin's Preludes

1839

Polish composer Frédéric Chopin completes his Preludes under difficult conditions in Majorca

Frauenliebe und Leben

1840

Robert Schumann composes the song cycle Frauenliebe und -Leben ('Woman's Love and Life’)

Robert marries Clara

1840

Robert Schumann marries the pianist Clara Wieck, daughter of his first teacher

Verdi's Nabucco

1842

The success of the opera Nabucco, premiered in Milan, is a turning point in the fortunes of Giuseppe Verdi

The Flying Dutchman

1843

The Flying Dutchman is the first of Richard Wagner's major operas to be staged, with its premiere in Dresden

Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream

1843

Mendelssohn's overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream, amplified now with incidental music, is greeted as a masterpiece at a performance of the play in Potsdam

Marx and Engels

1844

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels meet in Paris and become life-long friends

Mendelssohn's Elijah

1846

Mendelssohn's oratorio Elijah has its premiere in England, in the city of Birmingham

J. Straus succeeds father

1849

In Vienna the younger Johann Strauss succeeds his father as the Waltz King

Verdi's Rigoletto

1851

Giuseppe Verdi's opera Rigoletto, based on a play by Victor Hugo, is a huge success at its premiere in Venice

Verdi's Il Trovatore

1853

Giuseppe Verdi's opera Il Trovatore is a success at its premiere in Rome

Schumann's suicide attempt

1854

Robert Schumann throws himself into the Rhine, in an attempt to commit suicide, and spends the last two years of his life in an asylum

Berlioz's The Trojans

1858

Hector Berlioz completes his 4-hour opera The Trojans (not performed as a complete work until 1890)

Gounod's Faust

1859

The opera Faust, by French composer Charles Gounod, has its premiere in Paris

Dickinson writes

1862

Unpublished American poet Emily Dickinson writes more than 300 poems within the year

Tolstoy's War and Peace

1865

Leo Tolstoy publishes the first volume of his epic novel War and Peace, following the lives of several aristocratic families during the Napoleonic wars

Verlaine's Poémes saturniens

1867

French author Paul Verlaine wins a reputation with his first published collection, Poémes saturniens ('Saturnine Poems’)

Mussorgsky's Bare Mountain

1867

Modest Mussorgsky composes his orchestral work St John's Night on the Bare Mountain, based on a story by Gogol

Monet and Renoir

1869

Young French artists Claude Monet and Pierre-Auguste Renoir paint together in the open air at La Grenouillère, developing the Impressionist style

Verdi's Aida

1871

Giuseppe Verdi's opera Aida, is commissioned for the Cairo opera house, part of the process of Egypt becoming westernized

Die Fledermaus

1874

Johann Strauss's operetta Die Fledermaus has its premiere in Vienna

Pictures at an Exhibition

1874

Mussorgsky composes Pictures at an Exhibition as a piece for piano in memory of an exhibition by the Russian painter Victor Hartmann

Bizet's Carmen

1875

Georges Bizet's opera Carmen has its premiere in Paris and meets at first with a lukewarm response

The Ring of the Nibelungen

1876

Richard Wagner's sequence of four operas, The Ring of the Nibelungen, has its first complete performance at Bayreuth

Brahms's 1st Symphony

1876

Johannes Brahms' first symphony has its premiere in Karlsruhe

Dvorák's Slavonic Dances

1878

Czech composer Anton Dvorák writes his first set of Slavonic Dances, originally as piano duets

The Aesthetic Movement

1881

The Aesthetic Movement and 'art for art's sake', attitudes personified above all by Whistler and Wilde, are widely mocked and satirized in Britain

Strauss's Don Juan

1889

The tone poem Don Juan, by the 25-year-old Richard Strauss, has a passionately mixed response at its premiere in Weimar

Mahler's 1st Symphony

1889

Austrian composer Gustav Mahler conducts the premiere in Budapest of his first symphony, described as a 'symphonic poem’

Dvorák to NYC

1892

Dvorák takes a job in New York as director of the National Conservatory, returning to Prague in 1895

Verdi's Falstaff

1893

In Falstaff Giuseppe Verdi writes his last opera, and his only comedy since the early days of his career.

Puccini's Manon Lescaut

1893

Giacomo Puccini has his first success when his opera Manon Lescaut opens in Turin

Tchaikovsky, death

1893

Russian composer Pyotr Tchaikovsky dies after a short illness, possibly from cholera or perhaps in sinister circumstances that remain the subject of controversy

Dvorák's 9th Symphony

1893

Anton Dvorák's Ninth Symphony, subtitled 'From the New World', has its first performance in New York

L'Après-midi d'un faune

1894

Claude Debussy's tone poem L'Après-midi d'un faune has its premiere in Paris

Swan Lake

1895

Swan Lake is performed in St Petersburg in its definitive version, with choreography shared between Lucien Petipa and Lev Ivanov

Sibelius's 'symphonic legend'

1896

Jean Sibelius's 'symphonic legend' The Swan of Tuonela has its premiere in Helsinki

Rachmaninov's 1st Symphony

1897

Rachmaninov's First Symphony has a disastrous premiere in St Petersburg, probably caused by the incompetence of Glazunov as conductor

Elgar's Variations on an Original Theme

1899

Edward Elgar teases with the word 'enigma' printed at the head of his orchestral Variations on an Original Theme

Schoenberg's Verklärte Nacht

1899

Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg composes the string sextet Verklärte Nacht

Finnish nationalism

1900

Jean Sibelius's Finlandia stirs national instincts in Helsinki

Madame Butterfly, play

1900

David Belasco's play Madame Butterfly has its premiere in New York, and is subsequently seen in London by Giacomo Puccini

The Interpretation of Dreams

1900

Sigmund Freud publishes one of his most significant works, The Interpretation of Dreams

Tosca

1900

Giacomo Puccini's Tosca brings in the new century with a January premiere in Rome

Rachmaninov's 2nd Piano Concerto

1901

Sergei Rachmaninov's Second Piano Concerto gives him renewed confidence after the disaster of his First Symphony in 1897

Verdi, death

1901

Vast crowds line the streets for the Milan funeral of a national hero, the 87-year-old composer Giuseppe Verdi

Irish nationalism

1902

The play Cathleen ni Houlihan, by W.B. Yeats and Lady Gregory, fosters Irish nationalism

Ravel's Shéhérazade

1903

Maurice Ravel sets to music romantic oriental poems by Tristan Klingsor in his song-cycle Shéhérazade

Berg and Webern

1904

Alban Berg and Anton Webern study composition with Arnold Schoenberg in Vienna

Scriabin's Third Symphony

1904

Alexander Scriabin completes his Third Symphony, The Divine Poem, which is given its first performance in Paris in 1905

La Mer

1905

Claude Debussy completes the three symphonic sketches forming La Mer

Kindertotenlieder

1905

Gustav Mahler's cycle of five songs, Kindertotenlieder, is its first performance in Vienna

Diaghilev in Paris

1907

Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev presents five concerts of Russian music in Paris

Atonality

1908

Arnold Schoenberg abandons tonality in his String Quartet No. 2

Schoenberg's Erwartung

1909

Arnold Schoenberg composes his opera for a single voice, Erwartung, which remains unperformed until 1924 in Prague

The Golden Cockerel

1909

Rimsky-Korsakov's opera The Golden Cockerel has its premiere in Moscow

Rachmaninov's 3rd Piano Concerto

1909

Sergei Rachmaninov premieres his Third Piano Concerto during his tour of the USA as a pianist

The Firebird

1910

The Firebird brings together Fokine (choreography), Stravinsky (music) and Golovine and Bakst (sets and costumes)

'Symphony of a Thousand’

1910

Gustav Mahler conducts in Munich the first performance of his Eighth Symphony, subsequently known as the 'Symphony of a Thousand’

Girl of the Golden West

1910

Giacomo Puccini's opera Girl of the Golden West premieres in New York

Atonality developed

1910

Alban Berg and Anton Webern follow Schoenberg in developing atonal music

Kreisler and Elgar

1910

Fritz Kreisler is the soloist in the first performance of Edward Elgar's Violin Concerto