Hemispheric reactions to the events in Europe and Asia 1933-41

Events

USA loaned UK $2.3 billion

Approx. 1915 - Approx. January 1917

USA lends Germany $27 million

Approx. 1915 - Approx. January 1917

Immigration Act

1924

Ended Japanese Migration to the USA. Considered violation of "Gentleman's Agreement" of 1907

Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act

Approx. 1930

Japan invades Manchuria

Approx. 1931

FDR's Election

Approx. 1933

Inter-American Conference at Montevideo

Approx. 1933

Latin American states agreed that no country had right to intervene in internal/external affairs of another

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act

Approx. 1934

Repealed several isolationist trade policies

Vinson-Trammel Act

1934

construction of 102 new warships over next 8 years

Signed treaty with Cuba

Approx. 1934

Nullified Platt Amendment

NIRA provided navy with $237 million for warship construction

1934

Navy ordered 20 destroyers, 4 submarines, 4 light cruisers, 2 aircraft carriers

Foreign countries default debt

Approx. June 1934

everyone except finland defaulted debt

Italo-Abyssinian War

Approx. 1935 - Approx. 1936

Roosevelt invoked neutrality as to not offend Italian Americans

1st Neutrality Act

1935

Gave them the power to prohibit US ships from carrying US-made munitions to countries. Also to prevent US citizens form traveling on the ships of those countries.

Armed forces budget increased

1935

Renegotiation of Panama Canal Treaty

Approx. 1936

Signed General Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation- US could no longer participate in Panamanian Politics

2nd Neutrality Act

1936

Banned loans or credits to countries at war

Spanish Civil War

July 17 1936 - April 1 1939

Conference for Maintenance of Peace

Approx. December 1936

American nations agreed to convene with each other if security threat existed. Neutrality pact created for Western Hemisphere

Non-Intervention Protocol

December 16 1936

4th Neutrality Act

1937

Authorized US president to determine what can and cant be bought

Gallup Poll

1937

70% of Americans thought WW1 involvement was a mistake
95% thought future involvement would be as well

Navy so far

1937

US Navy had carriers, cruisers, destroyers, and submarines under construction

3rd Neutrality Act

1937

Forbade export of munitions to opposing sides of the Spanish Civil War. 'Cash and carry' also permitted.

USS Panay Incident

1937

Japanese bombers sank the USS Panay and three Standard Oil tankers. 2 Americans killed and 30 wounded.

Japan invaded China

1937

Bombed civilian areas

Sino- Japanese War

1937 - 1945

Outbreak of fighting between Japan and China

July 1937

Quarantine Speech

October 5 1937

FDR warned public of dangers of war

"Boston Herald's" editorial of Quarantine Speech

October 6, 1937

Criticized his ideal of war

Cultural Division of the State Department

1938

Change stereotypical portrayal of Latin Americans in media

Eighth Pan-American Conference

1938

Lima, Peru. Testimony to avoid war and actions that would lead to war

Naval Expansion Act

1938

$1 billion allocated over next 7 years

USA began Moral Trade Embargo

1938

Japan was target to protest their recent invasion of China

Japanese paid compensation for Panay incident

April 22 1938

Japanese paid $2,214,000 in compensation

Munich Crisis

September 1938

crisis over Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia, Hitler eventually granted this territory

US talks to France about bypassing Neutrality Laws

October 1938

Negotiations lead to France purchasing American aircraft

Extend Commercial Credits to China

December 1938

Worth $25 million

FDR began secret correspondence with Winston Chruchill

1939

Discussed ways of supporting the UK

Navy so far

1939

possessed 13 battleships

Pan-American Conference

1939

300 Mile security sone off coast of Americans established

FDR Congress speech against War

4 January 1939

'avoid any action, or lack of any action, which will encourage, assist, or build up an aggressor'

Outbreak of War in Europe

September 1939

FDR stated that the US would not become involved

5th Neutrality Act

Approx. November 1939

North Atlantic proclaimed a combat zone due to German U-Boats

CDA Establishment

May 1940

Supported Roosevelt in wanting to help the UK

Churchill asks USA twice for 40-50 star destroyers

May 1940 - August 1940

FDR doesn't listen either time to heed to Neutrality Acts

Dunkirk Evacuation

May 27 1940 - June 4 1940

Evacuation of French and British Forces from mainland of Europe

FDR organized Pan-American Conference

July 1940

FDR and his advisors were worried that Hitler may take over French Caribbean islands

USA/ Canada set up of Joint Board of Defence

August 1940

FDR meets with Canadian Prime Minister

August 1940

Canada had been at war with Germany since September 1939

AFC establishment

September 1940

America First Committee opposed the CDA. Very supportive of US neutrality

US aid to the UK

September 3 1940

USA supplies Britain 50 destroyers for bases in order to bypass the neutrality acts

USA implements Peacetime Consccription

November 1940

Roosevelt ordered mobilization of US Atlantic Fleet

1941

Us aid to UK grew

FDR extended War Combat Zone

March 1941

now included Iceland and Greenland and the Denmark Strait

Congress passess 'Lend-Lease' Agreement

March 1941

'The Act Further to Promote the Defence of the United States' gave FDR the power to transfer or lend arms and other goods to any country necessary to US defense

Robin Moor Incident

May 21 1941

US merchant vessel Robin Moor was sunk with its crew left on lifeboats by German U-Boats

German Invasion of U.S.S.R.

June 1941

Altered nature of European War

"Lend-Lease" extended to U.S.S.R.

July 1941

Used after German Invasion of U.S.S.R. FDR offered Stalin goods worth of $1 billion

Atlantic Charter

August 1941

FDR and Churchill met on ship outside of Newfoundland for 4 days to establish post-war goals. Churchill proposed basic outline or idea for the United Nations

US destroyers escorted British Merchant ships

September 1941

German Sub attacks Greer

September 4 1941

Causes FDR to say 'Shoot on Sight' to German or Italian warships. caused Congress to revise 1939 Neutrality Act to arm US merchant vessels

USS Reuben James sunk

October 1941

loss of 115 lives. Kearny destroyer suffered torpedo explosion with 11 dead sailors

Congress amends Neutrality Act

November 17 1941

Came from constant confrontations with German subs... (Reuben James)

USA declares war on Japan

December 8 1941

Japan's bombing of Pearl Harbor provoked this action

Hitler declares war on USA

December 11 1941

Germany allied with Japan