Expanding Markets and Westward Expansion


Erire Canal


The Erie Canal was hand dug, it was the nations first major canal that ran from Buffalo, NY to NYC, NY. price to ship freight was $0.19 then by 1830's was lower to $.02.

Santa Fe Trail

Approx. 1820

One of the most busiest and most well-known avenues of trade that was 780 miles that stretched from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. In the spring-time from the years of 1820-1860 Missouri traders loaded their covered wagons with cloth, knives, and guns and set off for Santa Fe, to trade/sell.



By 1820, more than 100 miles of canals, in years boosted more than , 3,300 miles of canals.

Mexican Land Grants to U.S.

1821 - 1824

Mexico offered enormous land grants to agents, who we called empresarios. This attracted American settlers, bought land in Mexico for cheap in return for a pledge to obey Mexican laws and observe the official religion of Roman Catholicism.



Steamboats made it possible to go against the water current or to go upstream. By 1830's more than 200 steamboats traveled the nation's western rivers, thus slashing freight rates as well as voyage times.

Mechanical Reaper


Invented by Cyrus McCormick, the machine was equivalent to hired hands, used for substance farming for growing cast crops such as wheat and corn.

The Alamo


Late in 1835, Texans attacked. They frove the Mexican forces from the Alamo, an abandoned mission and fort-Santa Anna responded and killed 187 U.S defenders in the process.

Oregon Trail


Two Methodist missionaries, made their way into Oregon territory where they set up mission schools to convert Native Americans to Christianity and educate them, By driving their wagon as far as Fort Boise, they proved that wagons could travel on the Oregon Trail, which began in Independence, Missouri and stretched as far as Portland, Oregon.

Republic of Texas

September, 1836 - September 1, 1836

Houston became president of the Republic of Texas. The new "Lone Star Republic" , set up an army and a navy and proudly flew it's new silk flag with the lone gold star.



Samuel Morse invented the telegraph to carry messages, tapped in code, across copper wire. Within ten years, telegraph lines connected the larger cities on the east coast.

Morse Code

Approx. 1837

Invented by Samuel Morse, this was the first instant electronic communicator.

Steel Plow


Invented by John Deere, it sliced heavy snow much easier then animal plows.

U.S. Annexes Texas

1838 - 1845

Houston invited the U.S. to annex Texas to the U.S.. Many settlers hoped it would happen. Southerners wanted to expand slavery to the new piece of land. Northerners feared the expansion of slavery. 1844- the U.S. presidential election featured a debate on westward expansion.

Election of 1848

Approx. 1840 - 1840

Democrat - Lewis Cass - hesitated about the extension of Slavery, into Americas vast new holdings.
Anti-Slavery Democrat - Martin Van Buren - Free-soil party- supported congressional prohibition on the slavery into the territory.
Whig Party - Zachary Taylor(Winner) overshadowed by a glittering discovery in one of Americas new territories.


Approx. 1840

Unpopular compared to the steamboats because it was more expensive to ship on trains then it was to ship freight on steamboats. Also, trains could operate in the winter when steam boats couldn't. By 1850 more then 100,000 miles of railroad had been laid.

54-40 or Fight


Polk(President of the U.S.A.), who was a democrat wanted to expand, annexing the Oregon Territory, the coordinates to where Polk wished to expand to, were 54,40 and G.B. and the U.S. agreed to draw the along the 49 parallel. Polk claimed or used this slogan, "54-40, or fight." meaning they would fight for the land he wished to have. but they never fought.

Willmot Proviso

1845 - 1846

This document stated that California as well as the territories of Utah and New Mexico would be closed to slavery FOREVER!

Mexican American War

1846 - 1848

Tensions tightened between the U.S. and Mexico in 1836 over hostilities. The annexation of Texas in 1845. The two countries might have solved the issues peaceably if not for the continuing instability of the Mexican government and the territorial aspirations of the U.S. President-Polk.

Mormon Migration- 1847-1869

April 5, 1847 - May 10, 1869

Mormons are a religious group/community, that played a major role in settling of the West. They used the Oregon Trail to make their westward movement.

California Gold Rush

1848 - 1855

James Marshall discovered gold at Sautter's Mill- word traveled east. By 1849 the rest of the world soon caught attention and prospectors who flocked to California were later called the 49ers.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

2/2/1848 - February 2, 1848

The U.S. and Mexico signed the treaty. Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande border for Texas and ceded New Mexico and California to the U.S., meanwhile the U.S. payed Mexico 15 million dollars.

Gadsen Purchase

1853 - January 1, 1853

Established the current borders of the lower 48 states along with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.


Approx. 1876

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone, which was use for communication. It was an amazing improvement for the country.