Music History Final

Eras/Events

Ancient Greeks

450

Mesopotamia- earilest comp. Enhueduanna

Medieval Era (476-1420/fall of Rome)

476 - 1420

Gregorian Chant/plainchant: monoph., linear, modal
square notation: neumes, clefs, ligatures
theory: 2 modes, 4 finals, auth. & plagal
Byzantine/Gregorian/Ambrosian/OldRoman
Guido of Arezzo: solfege "ut" and hand, gamut (hexich.)
Mass proper&ordinary
French buskers=troubadours/trouveres
Contessa, Minnesinger, Valter von der Vogelvglie

Ars Nova (The New Art)

1300 - Approx. 1370

guillume de Machaut

Ars Subtiior

1350 - Approx. 1400

comp. gets creative and complicated
Baude and Cordier

Renaissance

1400 - 1600

Reformation

1517 - 1648

95 Theses by Luther sparks Protestant Reformation

1517

Giovanni Artusi criticizes Monteverdi's "Cruda Amarilli"

1600

1607- Monteverdi's brother pub. an explanation defending him

Baroque Era

1600 - 1750

"Cruda Amarilli" is published

1605

(Monteverdi's 5th)

"Orfeo"- Monteverdi

1607

Monteverdi moves to Venic @St. Marks Basilica

1613

Restoration

1660

"The Lully Era"

1672

Composers

Franchino Gaffunio

140

early Ren
revises old ideas into new thoughts

Guillaume de Machaut

1300 - 1377

John Dunstable

1390 - 1453

Top 15thcent. English composer

Guillaume Dufay

1397 - 1474

Nuper rosarum flores

Binchois

1400 - 1460

top 15thcent. Burgudian comp

Johannes Tinotoris

Approx. 1400

liber de contrapuncti
early Ren.

Heinrich Glarean

1400

early Ren
adds 2 more modes (Aeoliean and Ionian), now 12 total

Barolome Ramis de Parcia

1400

new tuning system
early Ren

Jean de Ockeghem

1420 - 1497

Franco Flemish comp.

known for unique masses:
- cantus-firmus masses, motto masses, requiem masses
- long phrases, overlapped voices, continuous flow, less predictable melodies

influ. by Dufay
served kings of France
few works- developed his own style meshing past w/present music

Antoine Busnoys

1435 - 1492

Franco Flemish comp.
known for chansons
- 3 voice in treble-dominated style
- used form fixes
- longer melodies, more imiation, equality btw. voices, constantly changing rhythms

also wrote masses

Josquin Des Prez

1450 - 1521

music expressed emotions-humanist\
Church of Notre Dame
imitative polyphony

chansons:
- no form fixes, 4-6 voices, strophic, 4-5 line poems

motets:
- show diversity of his stlye, variety of texts
-Ave Maria
-music crafted to fit words

masses:
- some secular cantus-firmus masses
- freely comp. double canons
- solimazation syllables

text expression: conveying emotions/mood
text depiction: reinforce visual images in text

Jacob Obrecht

1457 - 1505

Franco Flemish comp.

masses, motets, chansons, instr. pieces
imitation: frequent/extensive, cantus-firmus masses, series of imitative entrances
clear: tone centers, melodic ideas, structure/shape

Henrich Isaac

1457 - 1505

Franco-Flemish comp.
Florence church comp.

lots of sacred works
pan-Euro sound
cycle of setting: chorahs constantinus
In Florence: carnival songs- canti carnascialeschi
In Germany: German Lieder (Italian style, adapted)
16th cent: homophonic texture w/imitative texture

John Taverner

1490 - 1545

16th cent. England

latin texts, hes Catholic but its ok, early enough in time

Johann Walter

1496 - 1570

Cristobal de morales

1500 - 1553

mannerist comp

Thomas Tallis

1505 - 1585

16th cent. England

mostly anthems

Giovanni P. Palestrina

1525 - 1594

"Prince of Music"
revised old chant books
words make sense- text declamation
masses: imitation, paraphrase, cantus-firmus, canonic, free
consonant and independent lines
suspensions, simple harmonies, cambiatas
1st style to be preserved/imitated "stile antico"

William Byrd

1540 - 1623

Top 16th cent. England comp.
Catholic but OK because he's so good, says Queen Elizabeth
Latin motets and masses

Counter Reformation

1545 - 1648

Luis de Victoria

1548 - 1611

Luca Marenzio

1553 - 1599

mannerist comp. (italian)

Claudio Monteverdi

1567 - 1643

Arcangelo Corelli

1653 - 1713