Social 11: Cold War Timeline

Events

Igor Gouzenko

1945

Soviet spy Igor Gouzenko defects to Canada and exposes a Russian spy ring in Canada.

United Nations

June 1945 - Present

The United Nations is created in San Francisco. Canada is one of the original members to sign the Charter. The original goal of the UN was to prevent another global conflict.

NATO formed

1949

NATO – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – is created as a military defense alliance because of fears created by the Cold War with Russia and its allies.

Korean War

1950 - 1953

Korea: Canada sends 27, 000 troops to the Korean War in a United Nations-supported military action. This was peacemaking.

Ambassador: Lester B. Pearson

1952

Lester Pearson becomes Canada’s ambassador to the United Nations.

Warsaw Pact formed

1955

In response The Eastern Bloc countries sign Warsaw Pact in 1955.
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Suez Crisis

1956

Suez, Egypt: First U.N. peacekeeping troops, negotiated by Lester Pearson, prevents war.

Nobel Peace Prize for Pearson

1957

Lester Pearson wins the Nobel Peace Prize.

Avro Arrow Cancelled

1959

Diefenbaker’s Conservatives cancel the Avro Arrow project. What was the Arrow?
The arrow was a state-of-the-art supersonic jet aircraft.
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Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

Cuban Missile Crisis: The U.S. and Soviet Union come close to nuclear war. How did Prime Minister Diefenbaker respond?
He preferred that the United Nations sent a fact-finding mission to Cuba, and implied that he did not believe the U.S. photographs. He was reluctant to have Canada drawn into a major conflict that seemed largely rooted into a major conflict that seemed largely rooted in U.S. policy and interest. So at first, he refused to place Canada’s NORAD forces on alert. Nor did it allow U.S. planes with atomic weapons to land at Canadian bases.

Canada's peacekeeping in Cyprus

1964

Canada participates in a U.N. peacekeeping mission to Cyprus. Describe Cyprus’ location (use an atlas).
Cyprus located on the juncture of Asia and Europe. In the east of Mediterranean Sea.

Vietnam War

1965 - 1973

Vietnam War: What did Prime Minister Pearson think of the US policy in Vietnam?
He criticized the Operation Rolling Thunder — the name of the U.S. bombing campaign of North Vietnam — in a speech at a university in Philadelphia.

Trudeau officially recognizes Communist China

1970

Trudeau’s government officially recognizes Communist China (rather than Taiwan).
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Trudeau visits China

1973

Pierre Trudeau visits Communist China on a peace mission.

Trudeau visits Cuba

1976

Berlin Wall falls

1989

Berlin Wall comes down, symbolizing the end of the Cold War.

Soviet Union dissolved

1991

Soviet Union dissolves into 15 countries.

Canada supported U.S. to against Iraq

1991

Canada sends troops to support the U.S. in the Gulf War against Iraq. This action was Peacekeeping.
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Bosnia and Croatia

1992 - 1995

Bosnia and Croatia: Describe the problems in this region:
In 19 Republic of Bosnia - Herzegovina, which was inhabited by Croats, Serbs, and Muslims. UN peacekeeping missions were sent in to try to keep the sides from fighting. Canadian forces were the first UN peacekeepers to arrive in side Bosnia, but neither they nor any other UN peacekeeping mission were able to keep peace.

Reputation tarnished in Somalia

1992

Somalia: what happened to tarnish Canada’s Peacekeeping reputation?
One night, members of the Canadian Airborne Regiment arrested a Somali teenager found wandering in the Canadian base camp. During the night the teen was tortured and beaten to death. At first, a military inquiry found that only a few low-rankin officers had committed this terrible, racist crime. As more evidence came to light, however, it became clear that there had been a high-level attempt to cover up the incident. And in 1995, the Airborne Regiment was disbanded.

Chaos in Haiti

1993 - 1997

Civil war and chaos in Haiti: Canada sends soldiers and later police.

Disaster in Rwanda

1994 - 1995

Rwanda: describe the disaster in Rwanda.
Rwanda was torn apart by ethnic rivalries. France and Belgium, the former colonial forces in the area, sent troops to try to control the slaughter. A small detachment of U.N. peacekeepers was also sent under the command of Canadian Major General Romeo Dallaire. There was a huge genocide happened in Rwanda. But US refused to help them at first because they didn’t want be involved in the internal conflict inside Rwanda. So UN didn’t do anything. After the massive wave of killing in Rwanda, The UN and countries who around Rwanda began to help the refugees and try to stop the conflict.