During this time, Europe and neighboring countries along the North Atlantic experienced an extremely cold climate, and the Little Ice Age affected agriculture, health, economics, social strife, emigration, art, and literature. Diseases, like malaria, came along with this Little Ice Age and killed mass numbers. With lack of crops, the economy was imbalanced and the prices for crops were raised, which usually led to rebellions or revolts. Raids took place as a result and made the structure and condition of urban-civilizations decline even more. After the Little Ice Age, civilizations reconstructed and revived themselves and the population grew once more. Timbuktu, Baghdad, Huangzhou, and Venice benefited from the warmer temperatures that came after the end of the Little Ice Age.
Lead by Chinggis Khan, the Mongols expanded teir empire by ending or interjupting many graet civilizations. He brought together both the Mongols and nomadic neighbors and they invaded and controlled over central Asia, northern China, and eastern Persia. Their invasions were seen as savage-like assaults by barbicans due to their ferocity and mass slaughters.
The Vikings, or Scandinavian pirates and traders, emerged in the 700s. They invaded many areas, often by sea. The era of their invasions is known as the Viking Era. To Europeans, they were seen as barbarians. The Vikings raided several parts of Europe and had destructive, but short-term, effects.