Afro-Eurasian trade and communication improved as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks. Since the Age of Discovery, with voyages, such as Christopher Columbus, began across sea to find more lands, Afro-Eurasia was considered as the Old World.
The 4 ancient trade routes that dominated Afro-Eurasian Trade, and also are still here to-date are: the Mediterranean Sea Maritime Trade (since c. 1550 BCE), the Trans-Saharan Trade Routes (since c. 800 BCE), the Indian Ocean Maritime Trade Route (since c. 300 BCE), and the Eurasian Silk Road (since c. 200 BCE).
The factors that facilitated their dominance over Afro-Eurasian Trade were: Improved Technologies, like Saddles, Caravans, Compass, Astrolabe, Growth of New Trade Cities, like Timbuktu, Swahili City-States, Hongzhou, Trade in Luxury Goods, such as Silk, Cotton, Porcelain, Coffee, Tea, Spices, and Expansion of Empires, like Ghana, Mali, Dar Al-Islam, Tang and Mongol.
The expansion of empires – including China, the Byzantine Empire, the Caliphates, and the Mongols – facilitated Afro-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks.
The trans-Saharan trade took Islam to West Africa, thus, bringing the Sub-Saharan region into Afro-Eurasian networks.
They did not have the benefit of forming on major river systems as did the foundation civilizations in Egypt, the Middle East, and Asia.
Communication and exchange networks developed in the Americas.
People from Europe and Asia sailed to the Oceania, crossing the Bering land bridge during the last glacial period to the Americas.
The US expanded rapidly to the west, acquiring the massive Louisiana territory in 1803, thanks to the Louisiana Purchase.
Wagon-way Routes helped the US explorers explore and discover more land and have more communication and trade, such as the Santa Fe Trail or the Oregon Trail.
Aztecs and Mesoamericans traded high value/low bulk items such as gems, exotic bird feathers and cacao, with the Pueblos (lives in what is now known as New Mexico and Arizona), to get turquoise.
Polynesian mariners travelled as far as the coast of South America. In the Pre-Columbian South America, the Inca Road system, or Qhapaq Ñan, was the most extensive and highly advanced road system during the Pre-Columbian time. This helps trading, exporting goods, and made travel/expansion easier.