AP World History Timeline

Layer 1

Acts of Imperial Governments

1500 BC - Approx. 1521

Created administrative institutions, like centralized governments, elaborate legal systems, and bureaucracies.
Helped promote trade and project military power over large areas by issuing currencies; diplomacy; developing supply lines; building fortifications, defensive walls, and roads; and drawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from the location/conquered populations

Structure of Imperial Governments

1500 BC - Approx. 1521

New techniques of imperial administration were in part on the success of earlier political forms.
Imperial governments have one ruler, such as a king, queen, emperor, or empress.
Imperial governments are structured so the ruler has the most wealth and protection, and there is generally an imbalance in division of money and labor.
Imperial governments tend to have slaves or conquered-people, who are generally at the bottom in ranks of the structure of power and wealth.
Imperial political structures can be set as a trial empire of direct conquest and control with force or as a coercive, hegemonic empire of indirect conquest and control with power.

Tributary System in China

206 BCE - 1804

The Tribute System was a set of practices that required non-Chinese authorities to acknowledge Chinese superiority and their own subordinate place in a Chinese centered world order. It stemmed from educated Chinese seeing their own society as self-sufficient, requiring little from the outside world while barbarians sought access to China’s wealth and wisdom.

The Abbasids

750 AD - 1258 AD

Within the worlds of the Middle East, the Umayyads were overthrown in 750, making way for a new Arab dynasty, the Abbasids. With a new capital in Baghdad, the Abbasid caliphs presided over a flourishing and prosperous Islamic civilization in which non-Arabs played a prominent role. However, the political unity of the Abbasids did not last long, many local governors or military commanders effectively asserted the autonomy of their regions, while still giving formal allegiance to the caliph. Because of this, the Islamic world had fractured politically into a series of sultanates, many ruled by Persian or Turkish military dynasties. The Abbasids officially ended in 1258 (due to the Mongol empire)

Mongolian Women Rulers

1204 - 1479

Women exercised more power and influence most notably among the Mongols
Queen Sorghaghtani Beki (reigned in 1204–1252) was the wife of Tolui (Genghis' youngest son). She became one of the most powerful and competent women in the Mongol Empire. She raised her sons to be leaders, and maneuvered the family politics so that her 4 sons (Möngke Khan, Hulagu Khan, Ariq Böke, and Kublai Khan) went on to inherit the legacy of their grandfather.
Queen Mandukhai Khatun (alive for 1449-1510) was the wife of the ruler Mandukhai, ruler of the Mongol Empire from 1473–1479. She was poisoned after 3 years while Mongol princes were struggling to become the Khan.
Mongolians were nomads, and, moving from pasture to pasture, women's labor was crucial, where the women were the ones who packed up and moved the yurts or gers, made clothes, rugs, flags, and covering for horses, and processed the milk, cheese and meat (which formed the basic Mongolian diet).

The Inca Empire

1438 AD - 1532

The Incas built the most centralized empire in the Americas during the 14th and 15th century by building on the base of the Chavin and Moche civilizations. The Incas practiced cultural imperialism, forcing their language and religion on conquered people.

The Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1750

Wheat, rice, sugarcane, grapes and many garden vegetables and fruits took hold in the New World. Horses, pigs, cattle, goats, and sheep made ranching economies and “cowboy cultures” in the American colonies. Horses shaped Native American societies, as more men began hunting on horseback; something that women typically did until the horses were introduced. The male warrior culture emerged, potatoes, maize and manioc allowed for massive population growth. Corn also quickly took hold because it sold for cheap, and you could get a lot of it in order to feed slaves during the slave trade. Silver mines in Peru and Mexico fueled transatlantic commerce, encouraged Spain to try to (unsuccessfully) dominate Europe. Which in turn enabled Europeans to buy Chinese team silk and porcelain, which fueled the slave trade as they brought sugar and cotton while spreading Africans throughout the West. (This huge exchange of diseases and people and food is known as The Columbian Exchange)

The Great Dying

1600 - Approx. 1656

The greatest concentration of people lived in the Mesoamerican and Andean zones, which caused long periods of isolation from the Afro-Eurasian world.The lack of Afro-Eurasian domesticated animals caused for a lack of immunities to the diseases that they brought over (typhus, malaria, yellow fever, smallpox, measles and influenza). Up to 90% of the native population died when the colonizers came into contact with them. This is known as “The Great Dying”, as it caused a large labor shortage while simultaneously making room for new coming immigrants. To this day, the population of Native Americans still dwindle.

Military Industrial Complex

1953 - 1961

During the Cold War the need for quick and secret decision making gave rise in the US to a strong sense of presidency and national security state in which defense and intelligence agencies acquired great power within the government and were often unaccountable to Congress. This served to strengthen what Dwight Eisenhower called the “military industrial complex”, a coalition of armed services, military research laboratories and private defense industries that stimulated and benefited from increased military spending and cold war tensions.

Movements Using Violence

1959 - 2005

The IRA was an Irish, militant organization that used terrorism and guerrilla warfare to drive British forces from Ireland.
The ETA is an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization in southern Spain and southwestern France. They were student activists who were dissatisfied with the Basque party.

Layer 2

State Involvement in Economic Activity

1550 BCE - Present

Afro-Eurasian trade and communication improved as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks. Since the Age of Discovery, with voyages, such as Christopher Columbus, began across sea to find more lands, Afro-Eurasia was considered as the Old World.
The 4 ancient trade routes that dominated Afro-Eurasian Trade, and also are still here to-date are: the Mediterranean Sea Maritime Trade (since c. 1550 BCE), the Trans-Saharan Trade Routes (since c. 800 BCE), the Indian Ocean Maritime Trade Route (since c. 300 BCE), and the Eurasian Silk Road (since c. 200 BCE).
The factors that facilitated their dominance over Afro-Eurasian Trade were: Improved Technologies, like Saddles, Caravans, Compass, Astrolabe, Growth of New Trade Cities, like Timbuktu, Swahili City-States, Hongzhou, Trade in Luxury Goods, such as Silk, Cotton, Porcelain, Coffee, Tea, Spices, and Expansion of Empires, like Ghana, Mali, Dar Al-Islam, Tang and Mongol.
The expansion of empires – including China, the Byzantine Empire, the Caliphates, and the Mongols – facilitated Afro-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks.
The trans-Saharan trade took Islam to West Africa, thus, bringing the Sub-Saharan region into Afro-Eurasian networks.
They did not have the benefit of forming on major river systems as did the foundation civilizations in Egypt, the Middle East, and Asia.
Communication and exchange networks developed in the Americas.
People from Europe and Asia sailed to the Oceania, crossing the Bering land bridge during the last glacial period to the Americas.
The US expanded rapidly to the west, acquiring the massive Louisiana territory in 1803, thanks to the Louisiana Purchase.
Wagon-way Routes helped the US explorers explore and discover more land and have more communication and trade, such as the Santa Fe Trail or the Oregon Trail.
Aztecs and Mesoamericans traded high value/low bulk items such as gems, exotic bird feathers and cacao, with the Pueblos (lives in what is now known as New Mexico and Arizona), to get turquoise.
Polynesian mariners travelled as far as the coast of South America. In the Pre-Columbian South America, the Inca Road system, or Qhapaq Ñan, was the most extensive and highly advanced road system during the Pre-Columbian time. This helps trading, exporting goods, and made travel/expansion easier.

Chinese Influence in Japan

Approx. 900 BC - Approx. 400 AD

The Japanese islands were physically separated from China, and so were never successfully invaded or conquered. Thus Japan’s extensive borrowing from Chinese civilization was wholly voluntary, and without the threat of direct military. The highest point took place during 7-9 centuries C.E. as the first unified Japanese state emerged with a system of small clan based aristocratic chiefdoms. The initial leader was Shotoku Taishi, an aristocrat from one of the major clans. He launched large scale missions to China which took hundreds of Japanese monks, scholars, artists, and students to the mainland. When they returned they put into practice what they had learned. He also issued the Seventeen Article Constitution, proclaiming the Japanese ruler as a Chinese style emperor and encouraging both Buddhism and Confucianism. In the decades that followed, Japanese authorities adopted Chinese style court rituals as well as the Chinese calendar. Subsequently, a Chinese based tax system, law codes, government ministries, and provincial administration. Chinese culture also found favor in Japan. Chinese schools of Buddhism, the Chinese writing system, as well as art and architecture flourished

The Spread of Paper-making to Islam

105 AD - Approx. 751

Papermaking known in China since the Han dynasty spread to Korea and Vietnam by 4th century C.E., to Japan and India by the 7th, to the Islamic world by the 8th, with paper mills soon operating in Persia, Iraq and Egypt

Gunpowder in the Ottoman Empire

1299 - 1414

The longest-lasting of the Gunpowder Empires, the Ottoman Empire in Turkey was first established in 1299, but it fell to the conquering armies of Timur the Lame (Tamerlane) in 1402. Thanks in large part to their acquisition of muskets, the Ottoman rulers were able to drive out the Timurids and reestablish their control of Turkey in 1414.

Coerced Labor

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1601

Indentured servants agreed to work for a fixed period in return for transportation, food and shelter. The Encomienda was when the Spanish crown granted particular Spanish settles (of the New World) a number of native people from whom they could require labor, gold or agricultural produce in return for protection and lessons in Christian faith. The Hacienda system was when owners of a large estate directly employed native workers

East India Company

1600 - 1874

Hunting societies of Siberia funneled luxurious Russian furs into the Silk Road trading networks. The British were excluded from the rich Spice Islands (controlled by the Dutch) in India, so they fell back and made 3 major trade settlements in the 17th century (known as Mumbai, Calcutta and Madras). Most of the commerce and trade relied heavily on cotton textiles from villages on the interior of South India.

Labor Organization and Food Production

1648 - Approx. Present

Imperial cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political administration for state and empire.
Most imperial cities also had governments and a requirement for subjects to pay taxes.
Imperial societies also had people to construct buildings and monuments.
Chang'an, the imperial capital of China (remained Xi'an during the Ming Dynasty) was an important trade center, situated as it was on the eastern end of the Silk Roads.
Social structures of empires displayed hierarchies, including cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, or castle groups
Slaves were generally at the bottom of the organization of labor. While farmers, artisans, and craftsman were above slaves. Military, soldiers, and elites were important for imperial societies that planned to war and conquer.
The Corvée System was a common form of labor where governments required subjects to provide labor as a payment of tax.
Patriarchy shaped gender and family relations in all imperial societies.
There would be imperial societies with a King or Queen, with belief that royal blood deserves to lead.
Some societies allowed women to advance and engage in business

West African Women Rulers

Approx. 1855 - Approx. 1898

Women exercised more power and influence most notably in West Africa.
With the fall of Samory Ture's new-founded Wassoulou Empire and the Ashanti queen Yaa Asantewaa (1902), most West African military resistance to colonial rule resulted in failure. Yaa Asantewaa was the queen mother of Ejisu in the Ashanti Empire, appointed by her brother. She led the Ashanti rebellion (the War of the Golden Stool), also known as the Yaa Asantewaa war, against British colonialism in the 1900s.
Lingeer Fatim Beye Joos Fadiou (Lingeer Fatim Beye) was the Serer princess (later queen) from the Kingdom of Sine. She’s the matriarch and early ancestor of the Joos Maternal Dynasty of Waalo and is usually regarded as the founder of the Joos Maternal Dynasty. Her reign was Lingeer of Sine c. 1335. She was of the Serer religion and ruled Sine at that time.

Anti-Apartheid in Africa

1948 - 1994

In 1948 an Afrikaner led national party came to power on a platform of apartheid. It became clear that peaceful protest (whether organized by men or women) had produced no meaningful movement towards racial equality. Major political parties became illegal, underground nationalist leaders turned to armed struggle-assassinations and sabotage. After many mass shootings and deaths, South African apartheid finally came to an end without a racial bloodbath.

China's Great Leap Forward

1958 - 1961

Joseph Stalin (1928) set goals for output of steel, electricity and machinery. This is known as the Five Year Plans. China also made a two of these Five Year Plans. The second one was known as the Great Leap Forward. It was aimed to speed economic development while creating a socialization society. It failed, and around 20 million people starved.

Layer 3

Synthesized, Borrowed and New State Structures Emerge

449 BC - 1435

Roman civil law often conflicted with the eastern empire's adopted religion of Christianity. This lead to the ruler, Justinian, commissioning the formation of several bodies of law (the Code of Justinian). The Code of Justinian gave order and security to a collection of diverse peoples across the breadth of the empire. It punished dishonest tax collectors and encouraged honest trade.
After the death of the prophet, Mohammed, a dispute erupted over who should be the leader of the new religion for Islam. Caliph was chosen to lead the Muslim community. Disagreement over the qualifications of the Caliph led to the split of Muslims into Shia and Sunni factions.
In the Mongol Khanates, Genghis Khan's armies first united the Mongol people, and then began to incorporate other Asian tribes and Turks into his empire. He imposed the law, called the Yassa, which codified most aspects of politics and the daily life of the empire, and the Yassa granted religious toleration and protected trade.
The Byzantine Empire and the Chinese dynasties (Sui, Tang, and Song) combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovation better suited to their specific local context.
The Roman Empire saw protecting their borders against barbarians as a significant problem, and Islam was a more organized threat, and the empire countered this threat by developing an imperial system called (The Theme System).
The Incas built the most centralized empire in the Americas during the 14th and 15th century by building on the base of the Chavin and Moche civilizations. The Incas practiced cultural imperialism, forcing their language and religion on conquered people.
A change of power in imperial China resulted in the new emperor (under the influence of powerful Confucians suspicions of Zheng He’s voyages), withdrew funds from Admiral Zheng He’s voyages for the 7 major diplomatic missions.

Gunpowder in the Safavid Empire

1301 - 1736

The Safavid dynasty also took control of Persia in the power vacuum that followed the decline of Timur's empire. Unlike Turkey, where the Ottomans fairly quickly re-established control, Persia languished in chaos for around a century before Shah Ismail I and his "Red Head" (Qizilbash) Turks were able to defeat rival factions and reunite the country by about 1511

Neo-Confucianism in China

1368 - 1911

China during the Ming and Qing dynasties continued to operate broadly within a Confucian framework enriched by Buddhism and Daoism to create, Neo-Confucianism. With the traveling merchants, scholars and leaders as well as various other people, the spread of Neo-Confucianism took Korea and Japan by storm

Trading Post-Empires

Approx. 1401 - Approx. 1500

Like the Portuguese, the English and Dutch built trading posts on the Asian coasts but they did not attempt to control shipping on the high seas.
The English and Dutch had two main advantages over the Portuguese,
faster, cheaper, and more powerful ships and joint-stock companies.

Mit' A in the Inca Empire

1438 AD - 1532 AD

Inca demands on their conquered people were expressed, not so much in terms of tribute but as a labor system known as Mita which was required periodically of every household. What people produced at home usually stayed home, but almost everyone also had to work for state. Some labored on large state farms or on “sun farms” which supported temples and religious institutions; others herded, mined, served in the military, or toiled on state directed construction projects.

Gunpowder in the Mughal Empire

1526 - 1757

The third gunpowder empire, India's Mughal Empire, offers perhaps the most dramatic example of modern weaponry carrying the day. Babur, who founded the empire, was able to defeat Ibrahim Lodi of the last Delhi Sultanate at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526. Babur had the expertise of Ustad Ali Quli who coached the military with Ottoman techniques.

Labor Migrants

1820 - 1914

Many people migrating from other regions to America were labelled as “labor migrants”. They were seeking escape from poverty in their own lands, drawn by Western prosperity and a belief that a better future awaited them.

Return of Migrants

1868 - Approx. 1880

New methods of transportation allowed for migrants to seek and achieve new opportunities in other regions of the world. Once Japan underwent industrialization, they opened up to the Pacific

Roosevelt's New Deal

1933 - 1942

The US’ response to the Great Depression came in the form of President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal, an experimental combination of reforms seeking to restart economic growth and to prevent similar calamities in the future. Through immediate programs of public spending (dams, highways, bridges, and parks), the New Deal sought to prime the pump of the economy and thus reduce unemployment. The New Deals’ longer term reforms (such as Social Security system, the minimum wage and various relief and welfare programs) attempted to create a modest economic safety net to sustain the unemployed, the poor and the elderly. Ultimately the New Deal’s programs didn’t work to end the Great Depression.

Democracy in China

1978 - 1989

Deng Xiaoping’s political party was unwilling to relinquish its political monopoly, or promote democracy at the national level for fear that it’d throw China into chaos and division. Such attitudes associated democracy with chaos so when a democracy movement spearheaded by university and secondary school students surfaced in late 1980s, Deng ordered the brutal crushing of its demonstration in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square before television cameras of the world.

Layer 4

Roles of Religion in the First States

238 BCE - Approx. 27 BC

The Roman Empire was one of the first major empires, which was located in the Mediterrean region.
Unfortunately, they encountered political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that lead to their collapse.
The empire was divided into several administrative zones, which led to the establishment of a western Latin empire and an eastern Greek portion.
The first laws implemented in Rome were the Twelve Tables, which produced in Roman history in 449 BCE, in order to relieve tensions between the upper classes, the patricians, and the common classes, the plebeians, of citizens.
These laws guaranteed procedural equality and consistency in courts of law, was the first major concession won by the plebeians on their road to political equality and republican government.
Plebeians used their position as Rome's labor force to get the patricians to create these laws.
The Roman Empire used engineers to construct defensive wall (Hadrian's Wall) to divide their territory of Britain from the Scottish Pics, whose raids were a threat to their empire. The points of Hadrian’s Wall had fortifications and garrisons.
The people in the empire excelled in building roads (they called Viae).
They had remarkable organization and flexibility, which enabled them to defeat those with superior numbers/technologies.
The Mauryan Empire was also one of the first major empires, which was located in South Asia.
They also encountered political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that lead to their collapse
The empire was a centralized state in the classical age, one of the two important dynasties in South Asia, aside from the Gupta Empire.
The most important ruler of the Mauryan dynasty was Ashoka, whom retained the bureaucracy created by grandfather Chandragupta, but imposed a system of law across his empire known as the Edicts of Ashoka.
The rules of the Edicts of Ashoka brought cohesion and legal consistency across the empire, as the Code of Hammurabi did for the Babylonians.
Ashoka relied on both a bureaucracy and a codified legal system to centralize his rule.

Foot Binding in China

950 - 1000

A tightened patriarchy expression in China resided in foot binding. Originally among dancers and courtesans in the 10th or 11th century C.E. the practice involved the tight wrapping of young girls’ feet, usually breaking the bones of the foot and causing intense pain. During and after the Song dynasty, foot binding spread among elite families. It was associated with new images of female beauty and eroticism that emphasized small size, frailty, deference and served to keep women restricted to the inner quarters where Confucian tradition asserted that they belonged. For some women it became a rite of passage, for others they took pride in their tiny feet and the beautiful feet that encased them. It also served to distinguish Chinese women from their “barbarian” counterparts and elite women from commoners and peasants.

Maritime Expeditions

1200 - 1500

Initiated in 1415 by Portugal, many voyages ventured farther down the west coast of Africa, supported by the state and blessed by the pope. These are known as maritime voyages. In 1497, Vasco da Gama launched a voyage that took him around the tip of South Africa, along the East African coast and with the help of a Muslim pilot, across the Indian Ocean to Calicut in southern India. De Gama had four ships, manned by perhaps 170 sailors, which is miniscule compared to Zheng He’s hundreds of ships and a crew in the many thousands. Europeans were seeking the wealth of Africa and Asia-gold, spices, silk and more. They were also in search of Christian converts and of possible Christian allies with whom to continue their long crusading struggle against threatening Muslim powers.

Trading Post Empires

Approx. 1401 - Approx. 1453

Like the Portuguese, the English and Dutch built trading posts on the Asian coasts but they did not attempt to control shipping on the high seas.
The English and Dutch had two main advantages over the Portuguese: faster, cheaper, and more powerful ships, and joint-stock companies. In most cases the Europeans traded peacefully with the Asians (partly because they were unable to subjugate them). The two exceptions were the Philippines and Indonesia where Europeans were able to use massive force to establish imperial regimes

Imperialism and the Colonies

Approx. 1870 - Approx. 1960

States began to industrialize, expanded their existing colonies overseas, and established new colonies. This expansion led to and affected diplomacy and warfare during modern empire-building. Nationalism played a big role in the idea of national identities and pride.
German nation, Filipino nationalism, and Liberian Nationalism.
Another important thing to take note of, in this time period, is the wrong doings and racial inequalities were all justified by Social Darwinism. “Survival of the Fittest."

Regulation of Immigrants

1882 - 1901

The Chinses Exclusion Act was a federal law prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. The White Australian Policy put immigration restrictions on non-white miners, specifically Chinese and South Sea Islanders of the Pacific

Population Changes

September 1, 1939 - September 2, 1946

The world wars caused major changes in populations of certain ethnic groups targeted by other major groups. Because most men were mobilized in America, women and African American men took the left over jobs, which then increased a sense of independence in American women

Post-Maoist Era

1976 - 1997

After Mao Zedong’s death (1976), Deng Xiaoping became China’s “paramount leader”, he committed to ending the perils of the Maoist era while fostering political stability and economic growth. His reforms for the rural areas consisted of the dismantling of the collectivized and return to small-scale, private agriculture. The peasants were happy and took it further than the government expected. Industrial reform proceeded gradually, managers of state enterprises were given greater authority and encouraged to act like private owners, making many of their own decisions. China opened itself to world economy and opened itself to foreign investment. And as China flourished, pollution, population issues and periodic inflation became more evident.

Islamic Revolutionaries

1979 - Present

Islamic revolutionaries took aim at hostile foreign powers. Hamas in Palestine and Hezbollah in Lebanon, supported by the Islamic regime in Iran, targeted Israel with uprisings, suicide bombings and rocket attacks in response to the Israeli occupation of Arab lands. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979) prompted widespread opposition aimed at liberating the country from atheistic communism and creating an Islamic state. Sympathetic Arabs from the Middle East flocked to the aid of Afghan compatriots. Among them was the group known as Al-Qaeda. For a time, Al-Qaeda and the US were on the same side against the Soviet, but they soon parted ways.

Layer 5

Han Dynasty

206 BC - 220 AD

During the Chinese period of warring states, the whole of China was embroiled in a civil war as the different kingdoms within it battled it out with each other in the quest for supremacy. In the end, the Qin State won, and gobbled up the whole of China, with 40 million people under its control. The Qin Dynasty didn’t last long, and soon it went to the Han, which eventually controlled China for close to 400 years. The period of the Han Dynasty is considered a golden age in Chinese history in terms of scientific achievement, technological advance, economic, cultural and political stability. Even to this day, most Chinese people refer to themselves as the Han people. Today, the “Han people” is considered the largest single ethnic group in the world.

Ottoman Empire

Approx. 1299 - Approx. 1923

At the height of its power, the Ottoman Empire spanned three continents, controlling much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. It contained 29 provinces and numerous vassal states, some of which were later absorbed into the empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. The empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. With Constantinople as its capital city, and vast control of lands around the eastern Mediterranean during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (ruled 1520 to 1566), the Ottoman Empire was, in many respects, an Islamic successor to the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

Meiji Restoration

1868 - 1912

Japan agreed to a series of unequal treaties with Western powers. The capitulation to the demands of the “foreign devils” further eroded support for the shogunate, triggered a brief civil war, and by 1868 led to a political take over by a group of young samurai from southern Japan. This is known as Meiji restoration, for the country’s rulers were claiming that they were restoring to power the young emperor, then whose throne name was Meiji or ‘Enlightened Rule’

Partition of Palestine

1897 - 1948

Zionist Jews formally initiated in 1897 with the goal of creating a “home for Jewish people in Palestine”. It was a response to racism and Antisemitism in European culture. Zionism lays in the growing Jewish emigration, especially in the 1920s, 30s, and after WWII and the Holocaust. Many who survived sought refuge in a land of their own. The obstacles were that the British had control over Palestine and there was Arab majority who feared the loss of their land and of their cultural identity as Muslims in what would be a Jewish land. The creation of Israel marked the triumph.

Partition of India

Approx. 1906 - 1947

England’s influences on languages, schools, and communication in India caused for people to band together and create the Indian National Congress. One of the leaders being Mohandas Gandhi drew in major support after WWI. Once the Indians had a bigger role in politics, a new movement arose called the All-Indian Muslim League. They demanded separate electorates for the Muslim minority. They feared that their voices would be swamped over by the Hindu majority, so they argued that the parts of India with a large Muslim population should have their own political status. Known today as Pakistan. 1 million people died in the partition, and left some 12 million refugees who moved from one country to the other.

Independent Balkan States

1914 - 1918

The Great War brought into existence a number of new states that were carved out of the old German, Austro-Hungarian, Russian and Ottoman empires. Examples would be the Balkans; Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

Global Institutions

Approx. 1918 - 1970

: The league of nations if an organization of nations that formed after WWI to promote cooperation and peace.
The united nations are independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
The international criminal court is a court made by the U.N. for indicting and administering justice to those who commit war crimes.
The international monetary fund (IMF) was made in 1947, containing 183 countries with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange as well as aid growth of international trade
The world bank is an agency of the U.N. that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion and debt consolation
The world trade organization (WTO) derived from GATT that promotes free trade around the world
The multi-national corporations (MNC) are business with vast holdings in many countries, many of them having budgets exceeding that of many foreign governments.
NAFTA is a trade agreement between the US, Canada, and Mexico to encourage free trade
ASEAN is a group of nations dedicated to economic and political cooperation with southeast Asia
Mercosur is the largest Latin American trade agreement containing Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay.
Greenpeace started in 1970, where key NGOs want to bring about change in attitudes toward environmental protection
Green belt in Kenya is to raise awareness of the connection between the environment and poverty, while promoting planting of multi-use trees.

Women's Movement in Chile

1973 - 1990

In Chile, a women’s movement emerged as part of a national struggle against the military dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet who ruled the country from 1973 to 1990. Because they were “invisible” in the public sphere, women were able to organize extensively despite Pinochet’s repression regime. Poor urban women by the tens of thousands organized soup kitchens, craft workshops, and shopping collectives, all aimed at the economic survival of their families. Smaller numbers of middle class women brought more distinctly feminist perspectives to the movement and argued pointedly for democracy in the country and home. This was an important part of the larger national protest that returned Chile to democratic republic in 1990.

Layer 6

Neolithic Era

10,000 BC - 3500 BC

Led to development of more complex economic and social systems
Transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture (farming + animal domestication)
Civilizations began to give up travelling/hunting-life for a stationary lifestyle.
The Quality of Life declined, and it’s presumed it’s because agriculture requires harder work than hunting.
Developed people to be superior in farming/agriculture and encouraged wisdom/knowledge over strength

Pastoralism

8000 BC - 600 BC

Developed in Afro-Eurasian grasslands
When lands were overgrazed, the grasslands were negatively affected
Branch of agriculture concerned with raising livestock (caring/tending/using animals like camels, goats, cattle, yaks, llamas, and sheep.)
People began to domesticate local-available plant/animals.
Transformed human societies by leading to more reliable and abundant food supplies, increasing the population and led to specialized labor, including new classes (artisans and warriors), and development of elites

Trading Cities, Commerce and Expansion

Approx. 1550 BCE - Approx. 200 BCE

Afro-Eurasian trade and communication improved as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks. Since the Age of Discovery, with voyages, such as Christopher Columbus, began across sea to find more lands, Afro-Eurasia was considered as the Old World.
The 4 ancient trade routes that dominated Afro-Eurasian Trade, and also are still here to-date are: the Mediterranean Sea Maritime Trade (since c. 1550 BCE), the Trans-Saharan Trade Routes (since c. 800 BCE), the Indian Ocean Maritime Trade Route (since c. 300 BCE), and the Eurasian Silk Road (since c. 200 BCE).
The factors that facilitated their dominance over Afro-Eurasian Trade were: Improved Technologies, like Saddles, Caravans, Compass, Astrolabe, Growth of New Trade Cities, like Timbuktu, Swahili City-States, Hongzhou, Trade in Luxury Goods, such as Silk, Cotton, Porcelain, Coffee, Tea, Spices, and Expansion of Empires, like Ghana, Mali, Dar al-Islam, Tang and Mongol.
The expansion of empires – including China, the Byzantine Empire, the Caliphates, and the Mongols – facilitated Afro-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks.
The trans-Saharan trade took Islam to West Africa, thus, bringing the Sub-Saharan region into Afro-Eurasian networks.
They did not have the benefit of forming on major river systems as did the foundational civilizations in Egypt, the Middle East, and Asia.
Communication and exchange networks developed in the Americas.
People from Europe and Asia sailed to the Oceania, crossing the Bering land bridge during the last glacial period to the Americas.
The US expanded rapidly to the west, acquiring the massive Louisiana territory in 1803, thanks to the Louisiana Purchase.
Wagonway Routes helped the US explorers explore and discover more land and have more communication and trade, such as the Santa Fe Trail or the Oregon Trail.
Aztecs and Mesoamericans traded high value/low bulk items such as gems, exotic bird feathers and cacao, with the Pueblos (lives in what is now known as New Mexico and Arizona), to get turquoise.
Polynesian mariners travelled as far as the coast of South America. In the Pre-Columbian South America, the Inca Road system, or Qhapaq Ñan, was the most extensive and highly advanced road system during the Pre-Columbian time. This helps trading, exporting goods, and made travel/expansion easier.

Spread of Confucianism

Approx. 600 BC - Approx. 501 BC

Confucianism, made by Confucius in 6th century BCE had the key ideas of social harmony through moral example, secular outlook, importance of education, and family as the model of the state. Not laws and punishments, but the moral example of superiors was the Confucian key to a restored social harmony. For Confucius, human society consisted primarily of unequal relationships, so if the superior party in each relationship acted with sincerity, benevolence, and genuine concern for others then the inferior party would be motivated to respond with deference and obedience. Harmony would then prevail.

Spread of Buddhism

Approx. 563 BCE - Approx. 1 AD

The silk roads not only opened up many regions to new forms of trade and commerce, but culture as well. Particularly, Buddhism. Buddhism had always appealed to merchants who preferred its universal message to that of a Brahmin dominated Hinduism that privileged higher castes. By first century BCE, many inhabitants of Central Asia had converted to Buddhism and foreign merchant communities soon introduced it to northern China. Conversion was voluntary, without the threat of conquest or foreign rule. Buddhist merchants could earn religious merit by building monasteries and supporting monks. The monasteries in turn provided culturally familiar places of rest and resupply for merchants making long treks across Central Asia.

The Roman Empire

Approx. 27 BCE - Approx. 476 CE

During the middle ages, they were considered the “superpower” of their time. At its height, the Holy Roman Empire consisted of eastern France, all of Germany, northern Italy and parts of western Poland. Despite being relatively small in terms of Empires, its influence on the history of central Europe is still felt today. Incredibly the Empire lasted from the early middle ages to the 19th century. The Empire was formally dissolved on 6 August 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II (later Francis I of Austria), abdicated following a military defeat by the French under Napoleon. Upon its collapse, the following nations emerged: Switzerland, Holland, the Austrian Empire, Belgium, the Prussian Empire, Principality of Liechtenstein, Confederation of the Rhine and the first French Empire.

Ethnic Violence of Armenians

1915 - 1918

During The Great War, the Ottomans suspected that some of their Armenian residents were collaborating with the Russians. As a response, the Ottomans massacred or deported an estimated 1 million Armenians

Ethnic Violence of Jews

1933 - 1945

WWII closed off certain possibilities for implementing the Nazi “dream” of ridding Germany of its Jewish population. This brought many Jews in Poland and in the Soviet Union under Nazi control, from this emerged Death Camps where some 6 million Jews perished

Layer 7

First States

5000 BC - 3500 BC

Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion,
Early civilizations developed monumental architecture and urban planning
Most states have certain religions worshiping Gods.
Monuments, carvings, and writings by people of first states talk about their culture and religion.
New religious beliefs that developed included: the Vedic religion, Hebrew monotheism, and Zoroastrianism.
Social hierarchies intensified as first states expanded.
A state is a single political system or government presiding over a group of people or societies. It can be a single city under one leader, or a cluster of cities and communities under a king.
It sometimes included people who did not willingly choose to live under their government, (conquered people living in an empire).
It’s believed that a State's function is to protect their freedoms, guard their property, and create the conditions for the individual to freely flourish as he or she wishes.
The Hittites developed the method to manufacture iron artifacts from as early as the 18th century BC.
The Hittites had a plentiful amount of resources and set out to conquer surrounding states in warfare.
They established an empire in Asia Minor and Syria that flourished from 1700-1200 BC.
They spoke Indo-European and were of the Anatolia religion.

Development of New Technologies

3500 BCE - 3100 BCE

The Qanat System was used to provide a reliable supply of water for human settlements and irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates

Central Asians pastoralists used horses to travel in steppes
Vikings developed long ships in order to traverse rough waters

Spread of Daoism

Approx. 600 BC - Approx. 300 BC

Daoism was created by Zhuangzi Laozi in between the 6th and 3rd centuries BCE. Its key ideas highlighted withdrawal from the world into contemplation of nature, simple living and ending striving. Daoism ridiculed Confucianism’s importance of education and earnest striving for moral improvement thought these efforts as artificial and useless, generally making things worse.

New Forms of Governance in Rome

27 BC - 476 AD

Roman civil law often conflicted with the eastern empire's adopted religion of Christianity. This lead to the ruler, Justinian, commissioning the formation of several bodies of law (the Code of Justinian). The Code of Justinian gave order and security to a collection of diverse peoples across the breadth of the empire. It punished dishonest tax collectors and encouraged honest trade. The Roman Empire saw protecting their borders against barbarians as a significant problem, and Islam was a more organized threat, and the empire countered this threat by developing an imperial system called (The Theme System).

Introduction of Christianity

Approx. 7 BC - Present

Around 500 years after the teachings of Confucius and Buddha, a Jewish peasant in the remote part of Judea began a brief three-year career of teaching and miracle working before he got in trouble with local authorities and was executed. This was Jesus of Nazareth and his teachings were of Christianity. This faith had teachings of letting go of the grasping that causes suffering.

New Forms of Governance in the Muslim Community

632 AD - 2000

After the death of the prophet, Mohammed, a dispute erupted over who should be the leader of the new religion for Islam. Caliph was chosen to lead the Muslim community. Disagreement over the qualifications of the Caliph led to the split of Muslims into Shia and Sunni factions.

Anti-War Symbol

April 26, 1937 - June, 1937

The title Guernica refers to a city that was bombed by Nazi planes during the Spanish Civil War and is thus an anti-war symbol and is a reminder of the tragedies of war. The overall theme of the painting is suffering, the suffering of animals and humans alike. The bull is depicted with a shocked expression of all the horror surrounding him, there is a mother holding a dead child underneath the bull, there is a dead soldier and a depiction of a white bird; symbolizing broken peace.

Anti Nuclear Movement

Approx. 1945 - 1963

The public was concerned with nuclear weapons since before 1945. Many elite scientists were in the anti-nuclear movement. This activism then lead to government policy shifts about nuclear weapons such as, Truman’s decision to explore the Baruch plan, Eisenhower’s efforts towards a nuclear test ban, and Kennedy’s signing of the partial test ban treaty. The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty stated that all test detonations of nuclear weapons are prohibited except underground. This was developed to both slow the arms race and stop the excessive release of nuclear fallout into the planet. The treaty was signed and ratified by the governments of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States during the fall of 1963.

Layer 8

Code of Ur-Nammu

2100 B.C.E. - 2050 B.C.E.

The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known law code surviving today. It is from Mesopotamia and is written on tablets, in the Sumerian language

Code of Hammurabi

1792 BC - 1750 BC

The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC
The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code, and partial copies exist on a seven-and-a-half-foot stone steel and various clay tablets. The code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth"

Patriarchy in Chinese Civilizations

206 BC - Approx. 1127

As Chinese civilizations took shape during the Han dynasty, elite thinking about gender issues became more explicitly patriarchal, more clearly defined and linked to emerging Confucian ideology. “Men go out, women stay in” emphasized in the public and political roles of men in contrast to the domestic and private domain of women. A few women, particularly concubines were able to exercise political authority. In doing so, anti-female hostility was provoked on the part of male officials as they considered governance as a masculine task and blamed the collapse of a dynasty or natural disasters on the “unnatural” influence of a women in political affairs. The “golden age” of the Song dynasty China was a little bit less than golden for many of the women. Under the influence of steppe nomads, whose women led less restricted lives, elite Chinses women of the Tang dynasty era (at least in the north) had participated in social life with greater freedom than earlier times. By the Song dynasty however a reviving Confucianism and rapid economic growth seemed to tighten patriarchal restrictions on women and to restore some of the earlier Han dynasty notions of female submission and passivity.

New Forms of Governance in China

Approx. 600 CE - Approx. 1435

The Byzantine Empire and the Chinese dynasties (Sui, Tang, and Song) combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovation better suited to their specific local context. A change of power in imperial China resulted in the new emperor (under the influence of powerful Confucians suspicions of Zheng He’s voyages), withdrew funds from Admiral Zheng He’s voyages for the 7 major diplomatic missions.

Central Asian Travels

Approx. 629 CE - Approx. 1354

Ibn Battuta was a Muslim traveler, who ventured form 1325-1354, throughout the Islamic islands from China to Spain and in Western Sudan
Marco Polo was a venetian merchant who travelled all across China and stimulated Europeans interest in Asian trade
Xuanzang was a Buddhist monk who went to India to visit traditional holy sites, he crossed the Tian Shan, Hindu Kush and Pamir ranges.

New Forms of Governance for the Mongols

1200 AD - 1260

In the Mongol Khanates, Genghis Khan's armies first united the Mongol people, and then began to incorporate other Asian tribes and Turks into his empire. He imposed the law, called the Yassa, which codified most aspects of politics and the daily life of the empire, and the Yassa granted religious toleration and protected trade.

Nonviolence in India

1857 - 1947

The movement toward independence for India gained momentum with Mohandas Gandhi, who encouraged civil disobedience through non-violent methods. As Gandhi's ideas spread, Britain's power waned. Gandhi believed in nonviolent, confrontational methods for gaining political action. It was called the Satyagraha and he was able to employ his philosophy in India to bring Muslims and Hindus together.

Nonviolence in Africa

1944 - Approx. 1960

During the 1950s, a new and younger generation of the African National Congress (ANC), which now included Nelson Mandela, broadened its base of support and launched nonviolent civil disobedience-boycotts, strikes, demonstrations, and the burning of the hated passes that all Africans were required to wear. These were inspired by the works of Gandhi. The South African government responded with repressions, including shootings of 69 unarmed demonstrators, the banning of the ANC and the imprisonment of its leaders