Why a Civil War? Group #3 JF, CK, OC

Timeline- Civil War

Northwest Ordinance

1787

The Northwest Ordinance bans slavery north of Ohio River and east of the Mississippi.

Constitution is ratified with the 3/5th Compromise

1788

the 3/5 compromise says that slaves would be counted as 3/5ths of a person when determining population for the amount of representatives

Certain states enter union as a free state or slave state

1800 - 1810

Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana enter Union as free states.
Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama enter Union as slave states.

Missouri applies for statehood as a slave state.

1819

Number of free states = 11; Number of slave states = 11

Missouri Compromise is passed

1821

-Missouri enters as a slave state as long as the law draws a line at latitude 36 30: North of that line slavery was banned.
-Maine enters as a free state.

The Liberator begins to be published

1821

William Lloyd Garrison begins to publish abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator.

Frederick Douglass publishes his Narrative

1845

US signs treaty with Mexico

1848

The U.S. acquires Mexican cession territory (California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, part of New Mexico, part of Colorado)

Harriet Tubman, another free state

1849

Harriet Tubman escapes on the Underground Railroad.
California applies for statehood as a free state.

Henry Clay proposes the Compromise of 1850.

1850

Henry Clay proposes the Compromise of 1850: Two new territories, New Mexico and Utah, are open to slavery. The slave trade in D.C. is ended.
A new Fugitive Slave law is passed.
California enters as a free state.

Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin

1852

An anti-slavery novel that helped lay the ground work for the civil war

Congress passes the Kansas Nebraska Act, The Republican Party is established

1854

Congress passes the Kansas Nebraska Act; the issue of slavery in both states will be decided based on popular sovereignty.
The Republican Party is established to oppose the Kansas Nebraska Act and the Fugitive Slave Law.

“Bloody Kansas”

1856

“Bloody Kansas”: violence breaks out between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas.
John Brown massacres 5 proslavery men in Pottawatomie, Kansas.
Senator Charles Sumner is caned in the Senate.

Dred Scott decision, Missouri Compromise line is unconstitutional

1857

The Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision: African-Americans are not citizens; Missouri Compromise line is unconstitutional.

John Brown

1859

John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Brown is captured and hung.

abraham Lincoln wins Presidency

1860

In November, Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, wins the election of 1860 with less than 40% of the vote.
In December, South Carolina secedes from the Union.

The Confederate States of America is formed

1861

Jefferson Davis is elected president.

In March, President Lincoln is inaugurated.

On April 12, 1861, Southern forces fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, beginning the Civil War.

Presidents

George Washington

1789 - 1797

He was an independent politician.

John Adams

1797 - 1801

independent politician.

Thomas Jefferson

1801 - 1809

Democratic-republican

James Madison

1809 - 1817

Democratic-republican

James Monroe

1817 - 1825

Democratic-republican

John Quincy Adams

1825 - 1829

Democratic-republican

Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837

Democratic

Martin Van Buren

1837 - 1841

Democratic

William Henry Harrison

1841

Whig

John Tyler

1841 - 1845

Whig

James K. Polk

1845 - 1849

Democratic

Zachary Taylor

1849 - 1850

Whig

Millard Fillmore

1850 - 1853

Whig

Franklin Pierce

1853 - 1857

Democratic

James Buchanan

1857 - 1861

Democratic

Abraham Lincoln

1861 - 1865

Republican