With new agricultural inventions and the free labor of slave the plains in the south were perfect for farms and plantations. Cotton, tobacco, and sugar became popular crops in the south. With limited technology in trade the products could not travel as fast and supplies could not get to farms fast.
The Missouri compromise prohibited slavery in all states above the 36th parallel. This caused great arguments on the constitutional thoughts of slavery. Many people thought that all slavery should be abolished and others thought that the Compromise should never have happened. The slavery disagreements would continue with all people until the Civil War started and the south split away from the union.
The Erie Canal was finished during 1830. It was made to connect the great lakes to the large cities in New York and the north east. The canal helped people to easily trade from the mid-west to the north east without having to go down the Mississippi River. During the war many civilians moved using the canal as a way to stay away from the fighting.
In the 1830's, the first trains emerged in america along the East coast and in the 1840's the railroad extended to the Midwest and the South. The railroads played a major part in the civil war as it provided transportation for soldiers and for transportation for resources used by the North.
The steamboat became very popular because it was a great advancement in trade. They could sail up and down the river with ease. The boats combined with future canals became a great way to trade.
With the rise in transcendentalism came a new way of viewing the natural and social world. the founder was Ralph Waldo Emmerson and he used his views on how the mind is a persons most powerful thing and that a person is in charge of there own actions should not be held back be government or society. Another transcendentalist was Henry David Thoreau, his book "civil disobedience" showed his view on the unneeded government laws and the bad thing society does to you.
Route taken by migrants in order seek a better life in the west. Many had different views on what a new life in the west would be like some in search of gold, others planned to take advantage of vast public lands the Government was selling for modest prices to be used for farming. About 300,000 traveled west along the Oregon Trail between 1840 and 1860
the rise in immigration in 1840- 1860 caused change in American society. Over 2/3 of the immigrants came from Germany or Ireland. The rise in Irish immigration is strongly due to the Irish potato famine during the late 1845-1852. being Christian and easy workers the Irish were treated less then the other whites in America. they would have to do jobs to hard for whites and to dangerous to risk a slave.
The Idea of Manifest Destine was that the white Americans have the right given to them by God to be the new chosen people and to take as much land as they wanted. manifest destiny is what cause d the controversies of the compromise over Oregon and even the Mexican war. the idea also cause many people to move out west on the Oregon trail and to settle in neww areas around North America.
Margaret Fuller was a known Transcendentalist and acquaintance to Emmerson. Her ideas were that you must find your-self and accept who you are in order to make a difference. she showed that a woman was more powerful then they are treated and that they could have stronger roles in the society. she was known to have relations with many men and travels by herself as a independent women.
James Marshall, a carpenter working on a sawmill, found traces of gold in the ground. News spread and settlers started to flock to California, a very underpopulated state. Many people, however, did not find gold and ended up being broke. The population of California then increased in which it was able to vote during the 1860 election.
During the late 1840s Chinese immigration greatly increased. By 1880 over 200,000 came across the pacific into America. Although first seen as great workers and respected people racism towards them quickly occurred. They were meet with hostility and treated as second class citizens
Emerged out of the group of anti slavery abolitionists who were unsatisfied with the candidates for the election of 1848, which drew from existing Liberty parties and the anti slavery wings of the Whigs and Democrats and endorsed the Wilmot Provosio
This event ended the Mexican War and gave the United States a great amount of land for what would become California and New Mexico. The land that was given became very important in order to swing the government. This is because the states were almost evenly split on the idea of slavery and whichever side the new state choose would be given a huge advantage.
Seneca falls was a meeting for Feminism. After years of treated unequally as men, many women rose up to create feminism and argued how they needed and demanded to be treated equally. They rephrased a new constitution saying all men and women are created equal and its known members included Susan B. Anthony, Lucretia Mott, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
The rise in cotton production in the South changed the economic stance in the south. With the increase in production more slaves were needed to keep up with the demand. slavery increased in every slave state by tens thousands in less then 40 years. This caused the South's more dependence on the slaves and the North's anger in what slavery was.
Endorsed by both major parties at the time, the Democrats and the Whigs, sought to leave the decision of slave or free statehood to the territories in the west.
After the increase in railroad demand Jefferson Davis sent James Gadsden to Mexico to buy land in order to expand the railways. Gadsden was a railroad builder and knew they needed the land to avoid unneeded problems when building. The Purchas was for 10 million dollars for parts of what is now Arizona and New Mexico.
The Illinois Senate election of 1858 pitted Stephen A. Douglas, a prominent democratic figure, against Abraham Lincoln, who was widely unknown outside of Illinois. The debates attracted large crowds in Springfield and showed two different sides of both politicians. Stephen A. Douglas believed that slavery was essential to the South's economy and said "i am opposed to negro citizenship in any and every from" were as Lincoln thought that slavery was morally wrong but did not believe in equality.
Four candidates ran for president in this election, Abraham Lincoln for the Republicans, J.C. Breckenridge for the Southern Democrats, John Bell for the Constitutional Union, and Stephen A. Douglas for the Northern Democrats. Results in Lincoln wining the election and leads towards the succession of southern states and the beginnings of the civil war.
The Chinese were originally miners but after the gold rush ended they moved to railroads. When the building of the transcontinental railroad started in 1865 the plan was to start at both sides of the united states and work towards each other. For working east to west it was easy with open plains but the west to east had to cross the Rocky mountains. To do this over 12,000 Chinese workers were employed and made low wages with hard labor. Without the Chinese the railroad would never have been able to finish when it did in 1869.
After the war hundreds of thousands of lives were lost during the war. around 620,000 men were killed in battle, not counting the civilian life lost. After the war both sides have not forgotten what the other had done. With thousands of farms gone and jobs lost. the civil war became the most deadly war in America and the most American deaths in any war in history.
Laws put in place by southern state legislature to allow authorities in the south to arrest unemployed African Americans, fine them, and hire them to employers on farm. These laws also forbade blacks to get jobs other than on farms or factories.
After the war so many soldiers and weapons were used that the United states armed force became on of the largest in the world. Even with the great loss of life the armies combined created a great force. After the war many soldiers returned home but some stayed. The civil war created new tactics like trench warfare which was most popular strategy used during World War I
Now seen as one of the greatest presidents ever Lincolns ideas and tactics are seen as a big reason why the Union was victorious. When Lincoln was killed it left a big hole in society. Many people were scared of an uprising right after the war and the rise in radical republicans was now dangerous to the south.
The 13th amendment gave freedom to all slaves in the United States. Millions of African Americans were freed after the war and slavery is still banned today. the slave freedom is what the war was fought over. America identity changed in how the constitution finally gave all men freedom of opportunity and no longer could be a slave.
After the civil war and the freeing of slaves most of the south farms and plantations were destroyed. Without slaves farmers lost all of its workers and had to rebuild all the crops that were lost. This caused an economic drop and lead many disputes on who can own what land in the south.
Baseball or "bat ball" as it was originally called became one of the major staples in American society. baseball was a common game played by college students and the Irish workers. even soldiers would play in the hearing distance of cannon fire. The game grew so popular over time that it is now know as "Americas pass-time"
The KKK was formed out of people who still believed in white supremacy. the members of the KKK would create secret rituals, costumes, and communication in order to stay hidden. the group would participate in "midnight rides" where they would ride around in sheets scaring black communities. The goals was to get all whites into the democratic party and to keep African- americans out of the political system
Proposed by congress that automatically gives citizenship to anyone who was born or naturalized in the United States and the same rights and privileges a other citizens
The purchase of Alaska in 1867 gained a massive amount of land to the US. although most of the land is in able to populate or use Alaska itself makes up around 1/3 of the total size of the US.
After the freedom of slave many had to go out and live on their own. it was hard to find good opportunities when most slaves had little to no education. From the Freedmen's Bureau thousands of schools were made and 200,000 new students attended school in the south. these schools lead the way for new colleges in the south like Atlanta University and Morehouse College.
After the plantations were rebuilt and new laborers came, agriculture in America. The new way of sharecropping helped for smaller farmers work together. Sharecropping became the dominate form of farming for decades after. Advancements in railroads and trade made farming easier and barbed wire helped protect the farms from unwanted guests.
The rise in social Darwinism was started after Charles Darwin taught of the "survival of the fittest". This idea claimed that only the ones who advance and control are strong enough to survive and rule in the world. People who followed this idea viewed the poor lower class citizens as social misfits and that it is their responsibility to rise up without the help of others.
The Hispanic Americans came away from Mexico in order gain jobs and to spread the catholic religion in America. By 1900 over 100,000 Mexicans came over the border in order to find jobs. With the war over many saw it as an opportunity to gain work because of the lack of labor the south now had.