Cuneiform writing was first made by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia from 3500 BCE to 3000 BCE. The name "Cuneiform derives from the Latin word 'cunes', which means wedge for how Cuneiform was written. To write Cuneiform back then, a stylus was used like a pencil was written into soft clay to make impressions that represent pictographs and then later phonographs or 'word-concepts'. The use of this language was greatly accepted into the Mesopotamian civilizations, such as the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Elamites, Hatti, Hittites, Assyrians, Hurrians, and many more. However, it was replaced by the alphabetical script around 100 BCE for the belief to be it was easier to write that way.
As the regular use of bronze began in Egypt and Mesopotamia, so did the Bronze age began and bringing an end to the stone age. Bronze was a combination of both Copper and Tin mixing together to make this unique Compound. What bronze did to the communities strengthen them, giving tools and weapons that were easier to smelt than Iron, easier to Cast (shaping a metal from a mold) and was much stronger than pure copper. It did not even stop from tools and weapons, for smaller items of rings and toys were made and so were bigger constructions such as shrine doors and statues were created as well. The trading industry and the economy within Mesopotamia boomed with the use of Bronze as one of their major resources for trade. All and all, with the probable accidental invention of the Bronze, these civilizations flourished in many ways, not to say with the end of the Bronze age and into the Iron age that this did not matter as much as it did though, as the new and easier way of smelting iron was invented by the Hittites.
Dynasty VI represented the height of the Egyptian Empire, ranging from 2613 BCE to 2494 BCE. Although the advancement of trading, exploring, and military power was at high rise, marking it as a time of prosperity and peace (The golden age) it lacked the advancement in architecture and arts, as they did not create massive structures as of the Gisa or great sun temples, such as the Nurissere and the djedkare.
The Harrapan Civilization was a wonderful but mysterious place. Centered along the Indus River valley, this civilization advanced greatly and is very interesting, believing to not have social classes based on the materials humans were buried with (or lack there of), their impressive and organized layout of the city, the agriculture was taken advantage of, with "earth-thinkers" controlling the annual flooding, and they traded with Mesopotamians, southern Indians, Afghanistanians, and Persians. They are two beliefs on how the Harrapans collapsed, however, the first being the forced migration of Aryans into the land, taking over the cities as they went along, or the Harrapans migrating outside of their area due to agricultural problems while the Aryans migrated to the area, making it easier to take over.
The Babylonians were a very, lets say, "determined" Empire to stay afloat. After many other Empires, like the Hittites who easily sacked Babylon in 1595 BCE when Hammurabi died, the Kassite 1531 BCE, and the Assyrians, but the true Babylonians revolted with the Medes again the Empire, causing the new Neo-Babylonian Empire, led by a Chaldean named Nabopolassar. His son, Nabopollassar ii, renovated the city and made very impressive stuctures. The many works of writing the empire is talked about spouts greatness in large scale about how big the empire is or how massive their walls are, for even a man named Herodotus did not go to the city himself, he states on how massive the city really is and "While such is it's size, in magnificence there is no other city that approaches to it." meaning that it really is that great. However, the Babylonians fell again by the Persians while they were celebrating a religious holiday, all devised by their plan to wad from the Euphrates River under the walls unnoticed. After their conquer again, the city flourished at art and education under the ruling of Cyrus, such as Babylonian mathematics, astronomy, and cosmology was very highly respected. After two hundred years, the Persians, along with the Babylonians were conquered by Alexander the Great, however when conquered, they were treated with respect. Even before Alexander died, he ordered for the ziggurat to be reconstructed, but it never became finished. After his death, the successors of him fought over his empire and the city to the point where the Babylonians decided to run away. When the Parthian Empire began in 141 CE, that was when the city truly deserted and forgotten in the sands of time.
Although traditionally dated 1766 BCE-1122 BCE, in recent studies it has been changed to 1600 BCE-1046 BCE. Shang (or also known as Yin) Dynasty was believed to have be united under the leadership of Cheng Tang, who defeated the "Evil" King Je of the Xia, where the Shang would rule over the area around the yellow river valley. The Shang Dynasty was known for the start of the Bronze age, where Bronze working was made common. They would also use Oracle Bones on a regular basis, for they would write in early Chinese on tortoise shells or cattle bones to answer futuristic questions, no matter how simple or complex the question was for the process was that they would write the question, burn the bone until it cracked, read the cracks on the bone to get the answer, and then write the answer on the other side of the bone. Religion was also different, for Taoism,Confucianism , and Buddhism were not formed yet to shape China, so the people believed in many gods such as Shang Ti, the lord of high. They collapsed due to the last Emperor, Shang Chou, being a cruel man who used many methods of Torture to control his people. Weakened by the constant attacks against nomads and rivaling tribes within china, he was taken down by rebel Wu-Wang in 1111 BCE
The Hitties developing Iron gave way to what we now know as the Iron age. During the time where Bronze was still most commonly used, Hitties would have the advantage of wielding Iron swords against bronze ones, which would make the bronze swords break. Hitties are mostly credited for the smelting process of iron, for which they took many years of experimenting and metal-working experience to make such an achievement, for the smelting point of Iron is Iron has a melting point of around 2795 degrees F compared to he Copper and Tin smelting points of 1972 degrees F and 422 F, which were combined to make Bronze in the first place.
The Phoenicians were people who lived on the coast of Levant (Eastern Mediterranean). Mostly independent city-states, the name Phoenicians actually derived from the Greek word phoinix, which signified their highly prized production of purple-dye, therefore them being nicknamed the "Purple people". Since they lived on a strip of land with limited agricultural resources, they decided to become experts in trading, especially in the Bronze industry. Mostly, they were a peaceful country, their main successes being the shells on the coast being made into purple dye, the different elements of religions, cultures, and beliefs in their art work, or most famously the creation of the alphabetic writing system that become the "root" of the Western alphabet when adopted by the Greeks. Although this was a country that seemed to just be in the middle of it all, it fell when their coast was finally conquered by Alexander the Great, who started off with one of their more powerful states, Tyre.
The Zhou Dynasty was one of the longest-lasting of the Chinese Dynasties. Usually, its long history is divided the same as the Han Dynasty, with there being a Western Zhou and an Eastern Zhou so called because of how the capital migrated Eastward to be safer from invasion. In Written scriptures, it is described that the ruler of the Zhou Dynasty, Zhou Wu, defeated the last king of the Shang Dynasty. Some impacts of the Zhou Dynasty were the introduction to iron in China, written script evolves from the ancient form of writing to the modern era, the origins of the Chinese Philosophy developed, a man name Confucius later founded Confucianism, and the first projects of hydraulic engineering was founded there.
The Bantu (or translated at the 'people') were over 400 ethnic groups traveling from Western Africa to the eastern and southern part of Africa. They went from their civilizations of the Congo to present-day Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. This was a massive migration for the impact of Africa's Economy, Culture, and Political Practice, for the Bantu people brought along their sophisticated agricultural skills and the forging of tools and weapons from metal. These skills allowed for the cultivation of new areas of land that had a wide variety of physical and climate features.
Siddhartha Gautama, or Buddha, was once a spoiled prince who, after stepping outside to see the word, saw the pain and suffering of it all. After that day, he took off his crown and decided to discover the relief of eternal suffering. For years he searched and searched but had frustrations to truly finding peace. Then one day, a small girl offered him a bowl of rice that he accepted, leading to having the idea that physical means was not the way to go about reaching enlightenment, so he taught and encouraged the path of balance instead of extremism, thus the invention of The Middle Way. For the rest of his eighty years on earth, he taught the new religion of Buddhism to all who listen. From Siddhartha Gautama's creation came the new popular, peaceful religion that spread throughout the world and predominantly stuck in China, impacting the society's way of thinking, speaking, and traditions in many ways.
Confucius was a Chinese Philosopher during the Zhou Dynasty. He was a very influential and mostly expressed the thoughts of Confucianism, usually concerned with Moral and ethnic questions of society and how they could be misinterpreted. He believed that there was only one way of thinking, one god, and one cosmic universe, such as there is only one sun per solar system and only one king per rule, having more than that will ruin society. Confucius impacted China by teaching the social values and transcendent concepts, also making the philosophy Confucianism that was developed into the making of a structured society and a good government based on its rules and beliefs.
The Height of the Greek city-states would most arguably be the Greco-Persian War, for it was a series of wars fought by the Greeks and the Persians. Started when the Persians began to come into Greek territory, the Greeks decided to fight back, pushing the Persians away. With finding out of surprise attacks and banding together, they defeated the Persians in a series of battles such as at Marathon, the navy battle in which the Greeks knew of a surprise attack in the Persian navy and deflected the attack, which at that night, the Persians ships where destroyed by a massive storm, and even the battle of Plataea, in which before hand the Greek navy tricked the Persians into a trap where their ships were destroyed in a narrow strait. Overall, the Greeks won, declaring the Persian war to be the height of the Greek city-states coming together to defeat one enemy and winning almost every battle with ease.
Socrates was a Greek philosopher who played a major role in Greek society. Using the "Socratic method" he would teach the ways of the world and to question life as a whole. Although not a great family man, he was a very amazing philosopher who did not just teach his students of elite and common alike, but also made them question everything about themselves, making him a very interesting man to be around. However, he did have people hate him for questioning their beliefs and way of life and therefore was sent to court and was sentenced to death by 280 to 221. As there is a law to which Athenians can propose another sentence, he proposed the sentence of gaining money from the wisdom he had taught others. They did not find that amusing as he was sentenced to death. Braver than any man known, even when his friends tell him that they can bribe the guards and spends his day in exile, he turns his back and says he does not fear death, dying of hemlock poisoning soon after. Impacting the way Greeks think and laying the foundation for Western Philosophy while making us question everything we ever knew is truly the way of a great philosopher.
Although there were many Sacks of Rome, such as The Visigoths of 410 CE, The Vandals (which made the word Vandalism a legal term) of 455 CE, and many more, the first ever Sack of Rome was in 390 BCE, where the Gauls planned an invasion. The only thing that saved the Romans from death was the fact that the Gauls did not want to invade the city in the dark, so that gave enough time for all the citizens to escape across the Tiber to the Janiculum hill, while Vestal Virgins with their sacred relics escaped to the friendly Etruscan city of Caere, and the men of military age and their families fled to Citadel, which was much more fortified than the city walls. When the Gauls came, they looted everyone's homes and then turned to Citadel to try and attack, but it failed, so they settled to block entry and escape from the city, leaving the romans trapped. After some time, the defenders ran out of food, so they came to terms with the Gauls. After paying 1,000lbs of gold, the Gauls safety left the city, taking the loot they stole with them.
The Macedonian king ruled from 336 to 323 BCE and was mostly the Oprah Winfrey and Michel Jackson of History. He was born to king Phillip the ii and Queen Olympia. He was tutored by Aristotle, a Greek philosopher, and at the age of 18 took charge of the Companion Cavalry. Not only did he presumably tame the wildest horse Bucephalus which he claimed as his own after and aided his father in defeating the Athenian and Theban armies at Chaeronea, he was also known for his wide conquering skills of large civilizations and Empires at the time. After his father's death and him becoming ruler, he proceeded to conquer the Egyptian Empire, Persian Empire, Mesopotamia, and India. When he finally died at the age of 32 from Malaria, he was known as the greatest and most powerful ruler and military leader of all time, arguably.
The Theravada doctrine Codified was the written down rules of traditional Buddhism. The Theravada Doctrine Codified was needed and necessary because it was hard for Buddhists to remember the teachings and the ones that do could starve for the major famine because it was the rules not to eat if those around you (such as commoners) are not eating as well.
After the defeat and death of Qin Shihuangdi in 210 BCE, China began a new lineage called the Han Dynasty. It was divided Into two major periods: the Western or Former Han lasting from 207 BCE to 24 CE and the Eastern or Later Han, which was made in 25 CE and ended in 22CE. The Western Han was regarded as the most prosperous than most of China's history. This was because of the major leaders Emperor Wen Di and Jing Di and their reformation of political, economical, and cultural norms. Although they replaced the Qin Dynasty, they still use most of their systems and practices, the major policies the only things to change. Large taxes were cut, the Confucius way was still taught but in a natural way of motivating people to think alike instead of forcing them. Even farmland, trading through the Silk Road, and advancement in technology (such as the low temperature steel furnace unearthed in Gongxian County) expanded greatly. During its late phase, though, the practice of corruption, expropriation, and annexation, the Western Han Dynasty collapse. Liu Xiu, the descendant of the Western Han royalty, then founded the Eastern Han Dynasty after over throwing Wang Mang. After only two years in power, he demolished all of Wang Mang's rules and policies. Many things had happened in the Eastern Han Dynasty under Liu Xiu's rule such as the Bronze-ware manufacturing and the silk-making industry booming with the Capital city, Luoyang, becoming the national business center or scientific innovation such as anesthetic techniques made by Hua Tuo or the Court official Cai Lun improving the making of paper with Bamboo strips and even the Arts became widely known and loved, with Calligraphy and paintings were sought after and ceramics becoming very popular, but the downfall was in the use of politics to which Emperors were juveniles and power went to those of little descent or eunuchs. Either way, it caused more darkness and corruption and led to the rulers downfall where the last ruler, Emperor Xian, was seized and force to remove himself from the throne by Cao Cao and his second son, Cao Pi.
Buddhism moving out of India had to spread out to other regions, but where it impacted the most was China, as Buddhism is China's oldest foreign language. Merging with some of the other religions, such as Daoism, it influenced China culturally in many ways, such as translation of foreign text for better understanding of their own languages, many phrases of Modern Chinese originated from Buddhist texts and new sacred objects, symbols, buildings, and rituals and the new ways of interacting with these objects. Even the caste system might have something to do with Buddhists arriving to China, for they believe anyone who is a Merchant or those who seek material wealth are not as in touch with the religion, so they are the lowest class and shown the least respect, while those of Buddhist status reach for the truth and are very influential, that is why they are at the top of the caste system.
Printing was thought to be invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th Century, but that is not the case, he had just refined the Printing invention into the Printing Press that we use in modern times. The real Printing invention was made in 206 BCE during the Han Dynasty where it was only a wooden block you press onto sheets of paper to make Prints. Tang perfected this idea between the 4th and 7th century. It was also made movable in Korea during the 13th Century.
Pax Romana (translated as Roman Peace) was a 200 year period of peace for all Romans with unprecedented peace and economic prosperity throughout the Empire. This peace spanded from the England in the north, Morocco in the South, and Iraq in the East. The population grew to the estimate of 70 Million people during that 200 year time of peace.
Jesus is the believed Son of God in the Cristian Bible. He was born to the virgin Mary and was raised predominately Jewish. As the story is told, he develops into a sort of Demi-god where he and his parents get help from the lord when needed such as when they need to escape to Egypt until King Herod is dead, being baptized by John the Baptized, and the calling upon his disciples. He constantly goes around, giving miracles and testing his demi-god abilities by turning water into wine, magically make bread and fish appear out of thin air, and even surviving 40 days in the desert without water or food, being tempted by the devil to give up and ask god for help. After all of these miracles, he is seen as a threat to Rome and is ordered to be crucified. The story goes that he dies quickly and is buried in a tomb, where he descends to hell, takes all that are worthy, and rises up to heaven to be the right hand man of god, and because of this story, many are still following the beliefs of the bible and the miracles and teachings of Jesus to this day.
St. Paul was born in 6 CE as a Roman citizen in Cilicia (now known as turkey). He was originally known as Saul of Tarsus and, when his was young, studied rabbinic theology and was obsessed with law. At around 34-36 CE, it was believed that St. Paul had a "supernatural experience" with god, in which he then came to believe in Jesus and become baptized himself. After that, he preached the word of god and traveled throughout. In 60 CE, he was accused of disturbing the Jewish community and was attacked. Before he was assassinated, however, he was sent to a Roman court since he was a Roman Citizen. There he lived his life for some years under 64 CE, to which he was Martyred in Rome. His major influence on the world was for mostly his out-spoken letters about the Jewish law and towards Philippians, Ephesians, Colossians, and Philemon and his huge contribute to developing the Bible and the beliefs and teachings from it.
The Second Holy Temple of Jerusalem lasted for 420 years (349 BCE-70CE). The Second temple, unlike its counter part, the First Temple, was ruled under many different civilizations such as the Persians, Greeks, and eventually the Romans. Aside from that, the political structure was not sound and the Jews were divided into many factions-this leading to the destruction of the Second Temple.
Gunpowder first appeared in writing during the Han Dynasty in 142 CE. After that, developments on gunpowder was created. In 300 CE, during the Chin Dynasty, scientists such as Ge Hong experimented more with gunpowder and wrote more vastly about the "explosions" that the gunpowder made. In the Tang Dynasty in 700 CE, the gunpowder was first being used for firework displays, and finally, in 904 CE, Chinese inventors began to find that they may be used as weapons in wars. The Invention and development of gunpowder not only made the tell-tale colorful fireworks that we use during the fourth of July or during the new year holiday, it developed and advanced on how we fight in battles to this day, still using explosives and using guns and bullets against enemies, therefore bringing forth a powerful tool used in all wars leading up to the idea it can be used in wars.
Edicts are the official order issued by a person or people of authority. Officially written in February 313 CE, the official order was an agreement to grant all the people of Rome the Freedom of Religion. It was passed because Christianity started to gain popularity in Rome, as The Edict of Milan was the result of the political agreement ending in Milan between Roman Emperors Constantine I and Licinius. Other previous Edicts of toleration towards Religion have been short-lived, but the Edict of Milan was the one that stuck in to effectively establish religious tolerance in Rome.
The Empire was founded in 320 CE by a man named Maharaja Sri Gupta who would set the foundation with his son, Ghatotkacha, for the new Empire known as the Gupta Empire. The one to build this foundation into the clouds was a man named Chandragupta I, the son of Ghatotkacha, whose Empire ad ruling was known as the Golden Age of India. Things such as Economy, science, architecture, politics, religion, literature, and Philosophy all boomed under the rule of the third, fourth, and fifth Emperor, with examples being Kalidasa, a poet and play writer, making famous work as of Abhijnanasakuntalam and Raghuvansha, epic architectural structures coming from Ajante, the politics combined with great tactics of using Martial System and divisions of provinces to help control the Empire more efficiently, and the Socio-Economic conditions being well balanced and prosperous for commendations being affordable and trade with foreign countries with items such as silk, cotton, spices, medicine, and grain further increasing to the wealth and prosperity of the economy. However, all good things must come to an end, because by the sixth Emperor, Kumaragupta I, a threat named the Pushyamitras came to their Empire and attacked. His successor, Skandagupta, quickly defeated the Pushyamitra, but only to come across a new threat to the Gupta Empire, the invading ‘White Huns’ or Hephthalites from the northwest. Through the wars raging with the 'White Huns' or ‘Sweta Huna’, many of the resources were depleted and such was one of the primary reasons for the downfall of this Empire. After a series of poor leaders and the constant fighting with the Huns finally leads to the collapse of the empire with the last Emperor being Vishnugupta, who ruled for ten years from 540 CE- 550 CE.
The ruler of this time, Constantine the Great, moved the capital of Rome to the city of Byzantium in 330 CE, where he also renamed it Constantinople. This was not of the randomness of the king to move such a capital to another place in the Empire, but the strategy of a wise king. Reasons for this move of these capitals were because Constantinople was much farther away from Germanic and barbaric attack, as such it was easier to protect than in Rome and to be closer to trading partners, since Constantinople was a point in the route from Europe to Asia. The role played by Constantinople was the conservation of the tradition of Rome LONG after the western roman empire fell and was headquarters to the Byzantine Empire. Therefore, Constantinople was made the new Roman Capital for strategic purposes made from the Emperor himself.
Attila was a Barbaric ruler of the Hun Empire, an Empire known for its nomadic ways of travel and its extensive wealth. Unlike the Mongols, the Hun Empire attacked the Romans head-on, conquering most of their Germanic neighbors such as Goths, Gepids, Rugi, and Heruli. He was not known for his great victories on engaging in battle just to conquer and did not have as much territorial space to brag about, but he did have lots of wealth, as an annual subsidy from Constantinople of 2000lbs of gold and the frequent raids for more wealth were what stood out the most for him. On his next invasion of Italy, his troops were hit by a disease that killed many, and there he died in 453 CE, researchers saying that it was the fault of hemorrhage, to which the Empire collapsed on his sons. What impacted history the most is not the riches of the Hun Empire or their brutal and frequent invasions, but what they might have done on accident. They made Germans and Persians alike to flee into Rome, demanded expensive tribute from both the East and the West of Rome, and even the death of Attila the Hun could have left the final blow in killing the Romans, for the sons fought even harder for their succession before the Empire collapsed. What Attila the Hun might have done was deliver accidental blows into Rome to send it into the "Dark ages", for they have left their chaos in Rome.
The nicked-named "Emperor who never slept" Justinian was one of the Byzantine Emperors who actually did not start off in the line of lineage. He climbed up in the role of Emperor after taking on the co-emperor and then with the death of August 1, Justinian became Emperor of the Byzantine Empire. In the time of his ruling, he had a goal to reclaim lost land of the Roman Empire and restore it to its former glory. Although this claim did so see some extension for he did gain an extensive amount of territory and military success, he also did scale a very large project on remaking the destroyed cities from the Nika Riot of 532 CE. and the remodeling and fixing of the Hagia Sophia from 532 to 537, which was gravely important because it was the most important church during the Byzantine Empire's long history. Portable art also flourished during this time, such as carved ivory panels known as Diptychs that were imperial gifts. He died of old age at 83 in the imperial palace, giving Justin, his nephew, rights to the throne. The most memorable accomplishment Justinian did while in reign was making the Justinian Code, to which the code states that all laws were made by the Emperor and they were interpreted only by the Emperor as well.