Period of 'Hunting Witches' in small towns, 800,00 women murdered, mass hysteria, mostly unmarried, response to the Scientific Revolution
Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776
Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome
The Protestant Reformation began with Luther's posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years' War
Period of Scientific Growth where many 'natural philosophers' studied and learned a great deal about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.
Civil war in England which ended with the execution of King Charles, and the establishment of the Commonwealth by Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell.
the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange.
A period of enlightened growth and education leading into more modern society, many philosopher's debated what an ideal society was and what rights should exist.
War for Spain and France to unite against most of Europe, ended with decision that Philip could be King of Spain, but not of France as well.
An edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to insure his daughter Maria Theresa inherited his land.
The treaty ending the War of Spanish Succession allowing for Philip to remain King of Spain, but not King of France.
War over whether Maria Theresa should keep the Austrian Throne. Ends with Maria Theresa keeping the Austrian throne
Ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1763, marking the beginning of British Dominance outside Europe
Shift of support between England and France over Austria and Prussia, from Austria sided with England and Prussia sided with France to the reverse.
American colonies separated from Great Britain.
Period of French Revolt which lead to the Rise of Napolean Bonaparte and utilized many Enlightenment ideas to attempt to formulate a new government,
Levied taxes without parliamentary consent, was considered tyrannical by many, partially responsible for the English Civil War
Centralized French government by building and maintaining nobles in Versailles absolutism, waged successful wars, revoked the Edict of Nantes with the Edict of Fontainebleau 1685, it drove an exodus of Protestants and increased the hostility of Protestant nations bordering France.
Russian, wanted to Westernize Russia, founded Petersburg, won the Great Northern War
English and Netherlands
Capitalism, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)
Brilliant military strategist who lead Prussia in any successful campaigns during his reign
A type of art associated with the Italian Renaissance
Art that highlights daily life using still lives, or paintings of inanimate objects that emphasized peasant life.
Art that was painted in the classical Greek and Roman style, depicting contemporary scenes.
light feminine french style similar to the ornate baroque, contrasted with Neoclassicism
Edouard Manet's A bar at the folies-bergere, Edgar Degas, Renoir, Camille Pissaro
Georges Seurat's A Sunday afternoon on the island of La Grande Jatte, Vincent Van Gogh's Starry Night, Paul Gaugin, and Paul Cezanne
Picasso, and Georges Braque's Violin and Palette
Congress of Vienna, traditional; Metternich; Burke
Louis XIV, inspired by "Divine right of the King"
State ownership of industry, Workers rights, Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet, and Robert Owen
Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), Free market economy, Laissez- faire (failed)
Mary Wollenstonecraft, Virginia Woolfe (A Room of One's Own), Milicent Faucet, Emmeline Pankhurst, Olympe de Gouges
Reaction to the Industrial Revolution, natural, emotional, Lord Byron
made by german philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Theodor Hertzl, response to Anti-Semitism and Dreyfuss Affair
Lenin, Soviet Union,
A time when the popes (Seven total) resided in Avignon, part of France, and were under influence of France. Lasted until Gregory XI moved the papacy to Rome.
The Hundred Year's War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time, weakened both monarchies with France moderately being the winner
A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe
Established centralization of Holy Roman Empire, gave much power to Prussia.
Peasants cruel revolt during the summer of 1358 in France, Part of the Hundred Years' War
The council held to resolve the dispute over who the pope was. Resolved in decision that Pope Martin V was the true pope.
An English Civil War between the Lancasters (Red Rose) and York (White Rose), Henry of Lancaster won at Bosworth field against Richard York and Henry started the Tudor line
Considered father of Humanism for his humanistic papers and essays.
First feminist in renaissance, though castiglione said women were ornaments
Flemish, oil painting, the arnolfini wedding and ghent altarpiece
woodcuts and self portraits + 4 horsemen of the apocalypse
Hans Holbien the younger
portraits of Henry VIII and thomas more
power of monarchs
Oil painting, symbolism (Arnolfini wedding the dog is a symbol of fidelity)
Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years' War
perspective, chiaroscuro = light and shade, pyramid configuration = horizontally linear and balanced, greek and roman and christian subjects = the madonna
Brunelleschi's The Dome of Florence Cathedral
Perspectively large dome with chiaroscuro to exemplify power of the patron
David's contrapposto (stiff right leg and relaxed left) recall Greek statues and his Christian subject (Humanism) with individualistic nude form along with his (Florence) strength against an unseen Goliath (Milan) are symbols of power
Raphael's The School of Athens
It seems to be in a three dimensional structure, symmetrical with plato and aristotle in the center, humanistic
Francesca's Federico de Montefeltro and Battista Sforza
Portrait of a man and his wife, red accessories on the man resemble elite as well as rome
Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling
Christian+Renaissance form, papal power, human anatomy with creation of Adam
Northern CHRISTIAN humanist writer who supported religious toleration.
His praise of folly poked fun at greedy merchants and he did poke at pope julius
wrote in latin, wanted to reform the catholic church
King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations, put forth the spanish inquisition
levied taxes, not absolutistist, had strong catholic ties, stronger armies
famous renaissance smaller court patron, resembled the FEW women the ren affected
Englishman northern renaissance who wrote Utopia!
Charles VIII of France invaded Italy but Spain's Ferdinand contested this.
Hapsburg-Valois Wars, in part caused by Lorenzo the Magnificent Medici's death in 1492
Columbus discovers America, part of the Scientific Revolution
Vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution
about a universal man who excelled in speaking and humanist skills
The Prince, by Machiavelli, is published, explaining what a good ruler should be.
Machiavelli is credited with founding political science.
thought that human nature was selfish, pessimistic; a ruler should be like a lion and like a fox
french ren wirter with his essay and satire
Codified English Language, wrote many historical plays and sonnets for queen Elizabeth
John Wycliffe, founder of the Lollards, translated the Bible into vernacular English, which sets up some basis for the Protestant reformation.
The Hussites were followers of the ideas of John Hus and were one of the forerunner groups for the reformation
Printing press is invented by Gutenberg, revolutionizing the ability to print books, and spurring the Northern Renaissance
Hid Martin Luther after his excommunication after the debate with John Eck where he doubted the Pope's authority
Anabaptist who wanted to overthrow gov, not recognized by augsburg
was mad at Johhan Tetzel for indulgence to fund St. Peter's Basilica, was political conservative, liked paintings while calvin did not
Zurich Protestant who disagree with Luther and prevented an allegiance with German Protestants, ended priest celibacy, creditated Erasmus, opposed indulgences
jesuit, 1540 acknowledged, fought in naples
Spiritual excercises, iron discipline and obediance
Education, missions, vs pro
Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England with the ACT OF SUPREMACY, he and luther liked nobility (allowed them to buy monastic lands) + (german peasant revolt), church sub to state
Also was Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, ruled over Italy and Spain and other things, divided his domains between his Austrian and Spanish Hapsburg kin, had to face Martin Luther during the Reformation, fought in the GE civil war of 1546-1555
Swiss Genevan Protestant born in France, Calvinism/Huguenots, the institutes of the christian religion, theocratic, luther said that church was subordinate to the state, did not like dancing in Geneva, John know brought cal to scotland, calvinists started the puritan church
france controlled catholic church, valois kings with francis i
Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on a church door, arguing that indulgences are morally wrong. Begins Refomation
A diet in the Holy Roman Empire which produced the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his following to be outlaws, and his religion banned.
German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt.
king of france during st bartholomew's day massacre, catholic duke of guise catherine and henry III was killed to leave henry of navarre
John Calvin creates Calvinism, a Protestant religion based on pre-destination, which he argues for
Elizabethan settlement settled cath and pro, supported the dutch
Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church, no more indulgences, no simony, reaffirmed vulgate, rejected luther
French and Pop Charles V attacked german protestants solely to divide northern Pro GE and southern Cath GE
French policy to divide GE
"Bloody Mary". Very catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants, lack of religious toleration
The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio in the Holy Roman Empire.
Ended GE civil war of 1546-55
preached on prayer as a woman
Period of fighting within France between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) that results in the Edict of Nantes
The revolts of the protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain with the Peace of Westphalia
Lead the swedish to supremacy during the thirty years' war
Style of art that was very grand and furnished. Very ornate, used in cath counter-reformation, light and dar tenebrism, intense emotion and subjects, not ideal, large and ornate, very catholic
Ecstacy of saint teresa by Bernini
an angel carressed her soul
Carvaggio's the calling of saint mathew
Christ dramatically shines a light on mathew
gentileschi's judith slaying holofernes
cutting off a head, to save judah
The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants, caused by political and religious divisions, with french swedish and danish interference
Ended the European Wars of Religion, ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. lead to self-determination, sovereign states, and international politics with a balance of power
Catholic Queen of France, helped start the French Wars of Religion with the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre which she hoped would kill the Bourbons, but accidentally left Henry of Navarre alive, was a politique,
the murder of Huguenot worshipers and citizens in an armed action by troops of Francis, Duke of Guise, start of the FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION
Date when Roman Catholic mobs, during the French Religious War, killed 5,000 to 30,000 protestants, was when henry of navarre was marrying Margaret of valois
Politique who changed his religion to catholic and alter policies numerous times in order to keep good control of his citizens. Is rumored to have said, "Paris is well worth a Mass", put forth the Edict of Nantes after the French Wars of Religion, was assassinated in 1610
granted the Calvinist Huguenots substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time. In the edict, Henry (politique) aimed primarily to promote civil unity.
Along with Cardinal Richelieu, one of the first absolute monarchs, removed rights of Huguenots, and was involved in the Thirty Years' War against the Hapsburg.
battle of lepanto spanish-catholics beat the turks at greece, lost the dutch revolt
Main leader of the Dutch revolt, excellent politique, never lead england
After the Dutch Revolts, dutch trade, science, and are were superior to nearly everyone else's at the time
The failed Spanish attack on England using naval forces. Spain attacked England in hopes that it could return England to Catholic fold after Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy. Because of a storm and new technology and tactics, England won decisively. Marks the end of Spain as a major power.
Part of the Dutch Golden Age
An economic bubble of Denmark that burst when the bank was forced to stop payment on paper noted, destroying their economy.
Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology with On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres (1543)
Vesalius published the structure of the Human Body (1543) and Harvey published on the movement of the heart and blood in animals (1628)
Catholic Astronomer who accurately observed the heavens, did not believe in heliocentric theory but proved it regardless, start of science institutions
published Novum Organum (1620) inductive reasoning
Dialogue on two chief systems of the world (1632) which confirmed Heliocentric theory
laws of planetary motion in 1609
Period where efficiency of agriculture allowed for better quality of life and eventually lead to the Industrial Revolution
Natural Philosopher who studied mathematics and physics
Calculus, Laws of Gravitation in Principia Mathematica
Invented the steam engine
Book by Isaac Newton during the Scientific Revolution stating Newton's Laws of Motion
Systema Natura in 1735
French Chemist, "Father of Modern Chemistry" with 1789 Elementary Treatise on Chemistry
Enlightened thinker who urged that the role of government is to protect the people from themselves. Used idea of Natural Rights, or rights that everyone should be granted, an idea embraced by the French Revolution.
Cynical enlightened thinker who wrote much about the evils of the church and advocated freedom of religion and expression.
Possibly the most important figure in the Enlightenment, many of his ideas on the Social Contract influenced French peasantry during the French Revolution, argued with Mary Wollenstonecraft over public and private spheres
First French Prime Minister, Jacobin, helped Napoleon make peace with Austria
Napoleon becomes Emperor in 1804
King of France under whom the Revolution of France occurred, eventually leading to his and Marie Antoinette's execution.
a political pamphlet written in January 1789, shortly before the outbreak of the French Revolution, by the French thinker and clergyman Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1748–1836).
Paris women rioted over high bread prices and so they ransacked the Palace of Versailles, which ended with King Louis XVI to return to Paris with them.
In order to support the French Revolution and to avoid being persecuted by the peasants, French nobles revoke their feudal power.
The pivotal group of Third Estates Generals formed a group against the French Monarchy, eventually beginning a revolution.
The Estates General meets in Versailles, and ends in the Tennis Court oath, sparking the French Revolution
One of the meetings of the National Convention, the group that began the French Revolution. Happened after the National Convention was forced to use a Tennis Court after being locked out of their meeting place.
A period in the French Revolution where rumors spread that an armed group of peasants were roaming the countryside as part of the Revolution
Bastille is captured by peasants, rebellion begins
The documents that was influenced by the idea of 'Natural Rights' and declared what rights every human should have.
First successful slave revolt
written by Olympe de Gouges for feminist movement
French revolutionary committee which organized the Revolution and the Committee of Public Safety.
A time when the Committee of Public Safety was executing anyone who they thought didn't support the Revolution, about 25,000 people.
Constitution ratified by the National Convention to establish the Directory
France's revolutionary government
1898- J'Accuse, wrote about antisemitism and the Dreyfuss Affair
A period in Europe of economic and technological expansion, resulting from increase life expectancy and health caused by the Agricultural revolution. Inventions such as the Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, the Steam Engine, the Bessemer Process, and the Solway process helped progress this period.
Germany ends up making France pay a huge debt
Published by John Stuart Mill
divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906.
Causes Russia to hate the Ottomans
Signed the dictate of Versailles, allowed for "rule by decree" in an emergency
Egyptian President Abel Nasser nationalized the Suez canal which had been previously under France and British control, Franco-Anglican soldiers failed at reclaiming it, balanced relations with US and USSR because neither intervened, end of colonial period
lead by Khruschev and his Secret Speech
In response to emigration from East Berlin