AP European History Timeline

Events

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

Period of 'Hunting Witches' in small towns, 800,00 women murdered, mass hysteria, mostly unmarried, response to the Scientific Revolution

Commercial Revolution

1448 - 1776

Period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776

Renaissance

1450 - 1600

Period of relative peace and intellect throughout Italy that lead to a great deal of art and culture, ending with the sacking of Rome

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

The Protestant Reformation began with Luther's posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the Thirty Years' War

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1789

Period of Scientific Growth where many 'natural philosophers' studied and learned a great deal about astronomy, biology, and other fields of science.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Civil war in England which ended with the execution of King Charles, and the establishment of the Commonwealth by Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell.

Glorious Revolution/Revolution of 1688/War of English Succession/Bloodless Revolution

1688

the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange.

Enlightenment

1700 - 1800

A period of enlightened growth and education leading into more modern society, many philosopher's debated what an ideal society was and what rights should exist.

Enclosure Acts

1700 - 1750

The Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

War for Spain and France to unite against most of Europe, ended with decision that Philip could be King of Spain, but not of France as well.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

The treaty ending the War of Spanish Succession allowing for Philip to remain King of Spain, but not King of France.

Pragmatic Sanction

1713

An edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to insure his daughter Maria Theresa inherited his land.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

War over whether Maria Theresa should keep the Austrian Throne. Ends with Maria Theresa keeping the Austrian throne

Second Agricultural Revolution

1750 - 1800

1st Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1830

Seven Years' War

1754 - 1763

Ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1763, marking the beginning of British Dominance outside Europe

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

Shift of support between England and France over Austria and Prussia, from Austria sided with England and Prussia sided with France to the reverse.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

American colonies separated from Great Britain.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Period of French Revolt which lead to the Rise of Napolean Bonaparte and utilized many Enlightenment ideas to attempt to formulate a new government,

World War I/The Great War

1914 - 1918

World War II

1939 - 1945

Cold War

1947 - 1991

Fall of the USSR

1991

People

Suleiman the Magnificent

1491 - 1566

Ottoman Empire,

James I of England

1567 - 1648

Cardinal Richelieu

1585 - 1642

Oliver Cromwell

1599 - 1658

Cardinal Mazarin

1602 - 1661

Rembrant van Rijin

1606 - 1669

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

1619 - 1683

Fredrick William the Great Elector

1620 - 1688

Magaret Cavendish

1623 - 1673

Charles I of England

1625 - 1649

Levied taxes without parliamentary consent, was considered tyrannical by many, partially responsible for the English Civil War

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Centralized French government by building and maintaining nobles in Versailles absolutism, waged successful wars, revoked the Edict of Nantes with the Edict of Fontainebleau 1685, it drove an exodus of Protestants and increased the hostility of Protestant nations bordering France.

William III of England, Prince of Orange

1650 - 1702

Charles Townsend

1674 - 1738

Peter 1 (Rule)

1682 - 1725

Russian, wanted to Westernize Russia, founded Petersburg, won the Great Northern War

William and Mary (Rule)

1688 - 1702

English and Netherlands

Fredrick 1 (Rule)

1688 - 1713

Prussian

Emile du Chatalet

1706 - 1749

Maria Theresa

1717 - 1780

Austrian

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Capitalism, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)

Fredrick the Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

Brilliant military strategist who lead Prussia in any successful campaigns during his reign

Arthur Wellington Duke of Wellington

1769 - 1852

Georg William Friendrich Hegel

1770 - 1831

Germany, Antithesis

Art

Mannerism

1500 - 1580

A type of art associated with the Italian Renaissance

Dutch Golden Age Art

1560 - 1650

Art that highlights daily life using still lives, or paintings of inanimate objects that emphasized peasant life.

Rococco

1750 - 1800

light feminine french style similar to the ornate baroque, contrasted with Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism

1750 - 1800

Art that was painted in the classical Greek and Roman style, depicting contemporary scenes.

Impressionism

1830 - 1900

Edouard Manet's A bar at the folies-bergere, Edgar Degas, Renoir, Camille Pissaro

Postimpressionism

1880 - 1940

Georges Seurat's A Sunday afternoon on the island of La Grande Jatte, Vincent Van Gogh's Starry Night, Paul Gaugin, and Paul Cezanne

Cubism

1907 - 1940

Picasso, and Georges Braque's Violin and Palette

ISMS

Conservatism

1300 - 1900

Congress of Vienna, traditional; Metternich; Burke

Absolutism

1600 - 1750

Louis XIV, inspired by "Divine right of the King"

Socialism

1770 - 2000

State ownership of industry, Workers rights, Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet, and Robert Owen

Capitalism

1776 - 2000

Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), Free market economy, Laissez- faire (failed)

Feminism

1791 - 2000

Mary Wollenstonecraft, Virginia Woolfe (A Room of One's Own), Milicent Faucet, Emmeline Pankhurst, Olympe de Gouges

Romanticism

1800 - 1850

Reaction to the Industrial Revolution, natural, emotional, Lord Byron

Marxism

1888 - 1917

made by german philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Zionism

1896 - 1950

Theodor Hertzl, response to Anti-Semitism and Dreyfuss Affair

Communism

1917 - 1991

Lenin, Soviet Union,

Pre-Renaissance

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1376

A time when the popes (Seven total) resided in Avignon, part of France, and were under influence of France. Lasted until Gregory XI moved the papacy to Rome.

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

The Hundred Year's War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time, weakened both monarchies with France moderately being the winner

Black Death

1346 - 1353

A plague from rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe

The Golden Bull

1356

Established centralization of Holy Roman Empire, gave much power to Prussia.

Jacquerie

March 1358 - July 1358

Peasants cruel revolt during the summer of 1358 in France, Part of the Hundred Years' War

The Great Western Schism

1378 - 1417

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

The council held to resolve the dispute over who the pope was. Resolved in decision that Pope Martin V was the true pope.

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

An English Civil War between the Lancasters (Red Rose) and York (White Rose), Henry of Lancaster won at Bosworth field against Richard York and Henry started the Tudor line

Renaissance (1300-1600)

Humanism, Scholasticism, Secularism, and Individualism (Classism)

1300

Petrach

1304 - 1374

Considered father of Humanism for his humanistic papers and essays.

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Decameron 1348-1353

Christine de Pizan

1364 - 1430

First feminist in renaissance, though castiglione said women were ornaments

Jan van Eyck

1390 - 1441

Flemish, oil painting, the arnolfini wedding and ghent altarpiece

Albrecht Durer
woodcuts and self portraits + 4 horsemen of the apocalypse

Hans Holbien the younger
portraits of Henry VIII and thomas more
power of monarchs

Renaissance Art

1450 - 1600

perspective, chiaroscuro = light and shade, pyramid configuration = horizontally linear and balanced, greek and roman and christian subjects = the madonna

Examples:
Brunelleschi's The Dome of Florence Cathedral
Perspectively large dome with chiaroscuro to exemplify power of the patron

Michelangelo's David
David's contrapposto (stiff right leg and relaxed left) recall Greek statues and his Christian subject (Humanism) with individualistic nude form along with his (Florence) strength against an unseen Goliath (Milan) are symbols of power

Raphael's The School of Athens
It seems to be in a three dimensional structure, symmetrical with plato and aristotle in the center, humanistic

Francesca's Federico de Montefeltro and Battista Sforza
Portrait of a man and his wife, red accessories on the man resemble elite as well as rome

Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling
Christian+Renaissance form, papal power, human anatomy with creation of Adam

Northern Renaissance

1450 - 1648

Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years' War

ChristiaN humanists

Northern Renaissance Art

1450 - 1600

Oil painting, symbolism (Arnolfini wedding the dog is a symbol of fidelity)

Erasmus

1466 - 1534

Northern CHRISTIAN humanist writer who supported religious toleration.
His praise of folly poked fun at greedy merchants and he did poke at pope julius
wrote in latin, wanted to reform the catholic church

Ferdinand and Isabella

1469

King Ferdinand, king of Spain, and Isabella, Queen of Castile, marry to end hostilities between the nations, put forth the spanish inquisition

New monarcies
levied taxes, not absolutistist, had strong catholic ties, stronger armies

Isabella D'Este

1475 - 1539

famous renaissance smaller court patron, resembled the FEW women the ren affected

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Englishman northern renaissance who wrote Utopia!

Birth of Venus and Primavera

1480

by Botticelli

Oration on the Dignity of Man (Pico de Mirandola)

1486

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1700

Vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution

Columbus Discovers New World

1492

Columbus discovers America, part of the Scientific Revolution

Invasion of Naples

1492

Charles VIII of France invaded Italy but Spain's Ferdinand contested this.
Hapsburg-Valois Wars, in part caused by Lorenzo the Magnificent Medici's death in 1492

Castiglione (Book of the Courtier 1528)

1528

about a universal man who excelled in speaking and humanist skills

The Prince

1532

The Prince, by Machiavelli, is published, explaining what a good ruler should be.
Machiavelli is credited with founding political science.
thought that human nature was selfish, pessimistic; a ruler should be like a lion and like a fox

Michael de Montaigne

1533 - 1592

french ren wirter with his essay and satire

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Codified English Language, wrote many historical plays and sonnets for queen Elizabeth

Protestant Reformation (1517-1648)/European Wars of Religion (1524-1648)

John Wycliffe

1382

John Wycliffe, founder of the Lollards, translated the Bible into vernacular English, which sets up some basis for the Protestant reformation.

Atlantic Slave Trade

1400 - 1800

John Hus

1403 - 1431

The Hussites were followers of the ideas of John Hus and were one of the forerunner groups for the reformation

Printing Press

1440

Printing press is invented by Gutenberg, revolutionizing the ability to print books, and spurring the Northern Renaissance

Elector Fredrick

1463 - 1525

Hid Martin Luther after his excommunication after the debate with John Eck where he doubted the Pope's authority

Thomas Munzer

1478 - 1525

Anabaptist who wanted to overthrow gov, not recognized by augsburg

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

was mad at Johhan Tetzel for indulgence to fund St. Peter's Basilica, was political conservative, liked paintings while calvin did not

Ulrich Zwingli

1484 - 1531

Zurich Protestant who disagree with Luther and prevented an allegiance with German Protestants, ended priest celibacy, creditated Erasmus, opposed indulgences

Ignatius Loyola

1491 - 1556

jesuit, 1540 acknowledged, fought in naples
Spiritual excercises, iron discipline and obediance
Education, missions, vs pro

Charles I of Spain

1500 - 1558

Also was Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, ruled over Italy and Spain and other things, divided his domains between his Austrian and Spanish Hapsburg kin, had to face Martin Luther during the Reformation, fought in the GE civil war of 1546-1555

Henry VIII

1500 - 1547

Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England with the ACT OF SUPREMACY, he and luther liked nobility (allowed them to buy monastic lands) + (german peasant revolt), church sub to state

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Swiss Genevan Protestant born in France, Calvinism/Huguenots, the institutes of the christian religion, theocratic, luther said that church was subordinate to the state, did not like dancing in Geneva, John know brought cal to scotland, calvinists started the puritan church

Concordat of Bologne

1516

france controlled catholic church, valois kings with francis i

95 Thesis

1517

Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on a church door, arguing that indulgences are morally wrong. Begins Refomation

Diet of Worms

1521

A diet in the Holy Roman Empire which produced the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his following to be outlaws, and his religion banned.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt.

Charles IX of France

1528 - 1580

king of france during st bartholomew's day massacre, catholic duke of guise catherine and henry III was killed to leave henry of navarre

John Calvin

1530

John Calvin creates Calvinism, a Protestant religion based on pre-destination, which he argues for

Elizabeth I

1533 - 1603

Elizabethan settlement settled cath and pro, supported the dutch

Six Articles

1539

Established Catholocism

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church, no more indulgences, no simony, reaffirmed vulgate, rejected luther

Civil War of 1546-1555

1546 - 1555

French and Pop Charles V attacked german protestants solely to divide northern Pro GE and southern Cath GE

French policy to divide GE

Mary I of England

1553 - 1558

"Bloody Mary". Very catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants, lack of religious toleration

Peace of Augsburg

1555

The decree that the leader of a region may choose between Lutheranism and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio in the Holy Roman Empire.

Ended GE civil war of 1546-55

(Saint) Teresa de Avila

1558 - 1640

preached on prayer as a woman

Act of Supremacy

1559

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Period of fighting within France between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) that results in the Edict of Nantes

Dutch Revolt/Eighty Years' War

1568 - 1648

The revolts of the protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain with the Peace of Westphalia

Michelangelo Carvaggio

1571 - 1610

baroque art

Gustavus Adolphus

1598 - 1632

Lead the swedish to supremacy during the thirty years' war

Baroque

1600 - 1750

Style of art that was very grand and furnished. Very ornate, used in cath counter-reformation, light and dar tenebrism, intense emotion and subjects, not ideal, large and ornate, very catholic

Examples:
Ecstacy of saint teresa by Bernini
an angel carressed her soul

Carvaggio's the calling of saint mathew
Christ dramatically shines a light on mathew

gentileschi's judith slaying holofernes
cutting off a head, to save judah

Ursuline order of nuns

1600

educated girls

Defenestration of Prague

1618

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

The War that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants, caused by political and religious divisions, with french swedish and danish interference

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Ended the European Wars of Religion, ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. lead to self-determination, sovereign states, and international politics with a balance of power

French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)

Catherine de Medici

1519 - 1589

Catholic Queen of France, helped start the French Wars of Religion with the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre which she hoped would kill the Bourbons, but accidentally left Henry of Navarre alive, was a politique,

Massacre of Vassy

1562

the murder of Huguenot worshipers and citizens in an armed action by troops of Francis, Duke of Guise, start of the FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION

St Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

Date when Roman Catholic mobs, during the French Religious War, killed 5,000 to 30,000 protestants, was when henry of navarre was marrying Margaret of valois

King Henry IV of France

1589 - 1610

Politique who changed his religion to catholic and alter policies numerous times in order to keep good control of his citizens. Is rumored to have said, "Paris is well worth a Mass", put forth the Edict of Nantes after the French Wars of Religion, was assassinated in 1610

Edict of Nantes

1598

granted the Calvinist Huguenots substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time. In the edict, Henry (politique) aimed primarily to promote civil unity.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Along with Cardinal Richelieu, one of the first absolute monarchs, removed rights of Huguenots, and was involved in the Thirty Years' War against the Hapsburg.

Eighty Years' Revolt/Dutch Revolt

Phillip II of Spain

1527 - 1598

battle of lepanto spanish-catholics beat the turks at greece, lost the dutch revolt

King William of Orange the Silent

1544 - 1584

Main leader of the Dutch revolt, excellent politique, never lead england

Dutch Golden Age

1570 - 1650

After the Dutch Revolts, dutch trade, science, and are were superior to nearly everyone else's at the time

Spanish Armada

1588

The failed Spanish attack on England using naval forces. Spain attacked England in hopes that it could return England to Catholic fold after Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy. Because of a storm and new technology and tactics, England won decisively. Marks the end of Spain as a major power.

Dutch East India Company

1602

Part of the Dutch Golden Age

Tulipmania

1637

Mississippi Bubble

1684 - 1715

An economic bubble of Denmark that burst when the bank was forced to stop payment on paper noted, destroying their economy.

Scientific Revolution (1543-1750)

Copernicus

1473 - 1543

Copernicus was a natural philosopher who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology with On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres (1543)

Vesalius and Harvey

1514 - 1564

Vesalius published the structure of the Human Body (1543) and Harvey published on the movement of the heart and blood in animals (1628)

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Catholic Astronomer who accurately observed the heavens, did not believe in heliocentric theory but proved it regardless, start of science institutions

Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

published Novum Organum (1620) inductive reasoning

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Dialogue on two chief systems of the world (1632) which confirmed Heliocentric theory

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

laws of planetary motion in 1609

Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

Agricultural Revoltuion

1600 - 1750

Period where efficiency of agriculture allowed for better quality of life and eventually lead to the Industrial Revolution

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Natural Philosopher who studied mathematics and physics

Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

Calculus, Laws of Gravitation in Principia Mathematica

Thomas Newcomen

1663 - 1729

Invented the steam engine

Principia Mathematica

1687

Book by Isaac Newton during the Scientific Revolution stating Newton's Laws of Motion

Carolus Linnaeus

1700 - 1750

Systema Natura in 1735

James Watt

1736 - 1819

Antoine Lavoisier

1743 - 1794

French Chemist, "Father of Modern Chemistry" with 1789 Elementary Treatise on Chemistry

Enlightenment (1700-1800)

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Enlightened thinker who urged that the role of government is to protect the people from themselves. Used idea of Natural Rights, or rights that everyone should be granted, an idea embraced by the French Revolution.

Versailles Built

1682

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Cynical enlightened thinker who wrote much about the evils of the church and advocated freedom of religion and expression.

Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Possibly the most important figure in the Enlightenment, many of his ideas on the Social Contract influenced French peasantry during the French Revolution, argued with Mary Wollenstonecraft over public and private spheres

French Revolution (1789-1799)

Jacques Necker

1732 - 1804

Jean Paul Marat

1743 - 1793

Jacques Louis David

1748 - 1825

Abbe Emanuel Sieyes

1748 - 1836

Oympe de Gouges

1748 - 1793

Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1748–1836).

1748 - 1836

Perigold Talleyrand

1754 - 1838

First French Prime Minister, Jacobin, helped Napoleon make peace with Austria

Marie Antoinette

1755 - 1793

Marquis de Lafayette

1757 - 1834

Maximilien Robespierre

1758 - 1794

Charlotte Corday

1768 - 1793

Napoleon Bonaparte

1769 - 1821

Napoleon becomes Emperor in 1804

Louis XVI of France

1774 - 1792

King of France under whom the Revolution of France occurred, eventually leading to his and Marie Antoinette's execution.

Estates General Called

1789

The Estates General meets in Versailles, and ends in the Tennis Court oath, sparking the French Revolution

Formation of the National Assembly

1789

The pivotal group of Third Estates Generals formed a group against the French Monarchy, eventually beginning a revolution.

Noble of French Revolution Renounce Feudal Priviledge

1789

In order to support the French Revolution and to avoid being persecuted by the peasants, French nobles revoke their feudal power.

Women's March on Versailles/October Days

1789

Paris women rioted over high bread prices and so they ransacked the Palace of Versailles, which ended with King Louis XVI to return to Paris with them.

National Assembly

1789

What is the Third Estate?

1789

a political pamphlet written in January 1789, shortly before the outbreak of the French Revolution, by the French thinker and clergyman Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1748–1836).

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

One of the meetings of the National Convention, the group that began the French Revolution. Happened after the National Convention was forced to use a Tennis Court after being locked out of their meeting place.

Great Fear

July 1789 - August 1789

A period in the French Revolution where rumors spread that an armed group of peasants were roaming the countryside as part of the Revolution

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

Bastille is captured by peasants, rebellion begins

Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen

August 26, 1789

The documents that was influenced by the idea of 'Natural Rights' and declared what rights every human should have.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

1790

Declaration of Rights of Women

1791

written by Olympe de Gouges for feminist movement

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

First successful slave revolt

National Convention

1792 - 1794

French revolutionary committee which organized the Revolution and the Committee of Public Safety.

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

A time when the Committee of Public Safety was executing anyone who they thought didn't support the Revolution, about 25,000 people.

Thermadorian Reaction

1794 - 1799

The Directory

1795 - 1799

France's revolutionary government

Constitution of Year III

1795

Constitution ratified by the National Convention to establish the Directory

Napoleonic Wars

1803 - 1815

Romanticism

William Wordsworth

1770 - 1850

Lord Byron

1788 - 1824

Post-Napoleon/Pre-WWI/Industrial Revolution

Klemens von Metternich

1773 - 1859

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

Peterloo Massacre

1819

Carlsbad Decrees

1819

Greek Revolution

1821 - 1832

Decembrist Revolution

1825

July Revolution/2nd French Revolution

1830

Emile Zola

1840 - 1902

1898- J'Accuse, wrote about antisemitism and the Dreyfuss Affair

Irish Potato Famine

1845 - 1852

Repeal of the Corn Laws

1846

Italian Unification/Risorgimento

1848 - 1871

Revolutions of 1848

1848

2nd Industrial Revolution

1850 - 1900

A period in Europe of economic and technological expansion, resulting from increase life expectancy and health caused by the Agricultural revolution. Inventions such as the Spinning Jenny, the Water Frame, the Steam Engine, the Bessemer Process, and the Solway process helped progress this period.

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

1st German Unification

1864 - 1871

Austro-Prussian War

1866

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Germany ends up making France pay a huge debt

Utilitarianism

1873

Published by John Stuart Mill

Dreyfuss Affair

1894

divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906.

Revolution of 1905

1905

Colonial Period

The Great Game

1830 - 1899

Opium Wars

1839 - 1842

Treaty of Nanjing

1842

Sepoy Rebellion

1857 - 1858

Suez Canal Opened

1869

Russo-Turkish War

1877 - 1878

Causes Russia to hate the Ottomans

Scramble for Africa

1884 - 1885

1st Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

Fashoda Crisis

1898

Boer War

1899 - 1902

Boxer Rebellion

1900

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Second Moroccan War/Agadir Crisis

1911

Second Balkan War

1912 - 1913

World War I

Treaty of Versailles

1919

Interwar Period

Bolshevik Revolution

1917

Spanish Flu

1918

Weimar Republic

1919 - 1933

Signed the dictate of Versailles, allowed for "rule by decree" in an emergency

Mussolini's March on Rome

1922

Beer Hall Putsch

1923

Rhur Valley Crisis

1923 - 1925

Great Depression

1930 - 1939

Reichstag Fire

February 27, 1933

Nuremberg Laws

1935

The Great Purge/Great Terror

1936 - 1938

Kristallnacht

1938

Anschluss

1938

World War II

Rule of Joseph Stalin

1922 - 1952

The Holocaust

1933 - 1945

Nuremburg Trials

1945 - 1949

Yalta Conference

February 1945

Cold War and Decolonization

Indian Independence

1947

Berlin Airlift

1948 - 1949

Marshall Plan

1948

NATO Established

1949

Warsaw Pact

1954

Algerian War

1954 - 1962

De-Stalinization

1956

lead by Khruschev and his Secret Speech

The Secret Speech

1956

Suez Crisis

1956

Egyptian President Abel Nasser nationalized the Suez canal which had been previously under France and British control, Franco-Anglican soldiers failed at reclaiming it, balanced relations with US and USSR because neither intervened, end of colonial period

Sputnik Launched

1957

Space Race

1957 - 1975

Fidel Castro

1959 - 1976

U-2 Incident

1960

Berlin Wall Built

1961

In response to emigration from East Berlin

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

Vatican II

1962 - 1965

Solidarity Movement

1980 - 1997

Glasnost and Perestroika

1985 - 1991

Berlin Wall Torn Down

1989

USSR Collapse

1991

Modern Europe

Yugoslavic Wars

1991 - 2001

European Union

1993

Implementation of the Euro

1999