Civil Rights

Events

14th Amendment

July 9, 1868

This amendment made slaves citizens and forbade states from denying
civil rights.

15th Amendment

1870

This amendment prohibited states from denying a person the right to vote on account of race.

Plessy V. Ferguson

1896

The Supreme Court decision that judicially validated state sponsored segregation in public facilities by its creation and endorsement of the “separate but equal” doctrine as satisfying the Constitutional requirements provided in the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Rosa Parks

February 4, 1913 - October 24, 2005

On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man.

Medgar Evers

July 2, 1925 - June 12, 1963

Medgar Evers activism made him the most visible civil rights leader in the state of Mississippi.

James Merideth

June 25, 1933 - Present

In 1966 Meredith began a one man protest against racial violence in Mississippi which he called a “Walk Against Fear.”

Emmett Till

July 25, 1941 - August 28, 1955

Emmett Till was visiting relatives in Money, Mississippi when he was murdered because he was accused of harassing a local white woman.

Desegregation of Military

July 26, 1948

President Truman signs the document to desegregate the military.

Brown v. Board of Education

May 17, 1954

This court case ruled that “separate educational facilities” were “inherently unequal” because the intangible inequalities of segregation deprived black students of equal protection under the law.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

December 5, 1955 - December 20, 1965

African Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest segregated seating.

MLK introduced as President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

January 10, 1957

Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. was chosen as the first president of this new group dedicated to abolishing legalized segregation and ending the disfranchisement of black southerners in a non-violent manner.

Little Rock Nine

September 4, 1957 - September 25, 1957

Nine African American students enrolled in a predominantly white high school in Arkansas. The governor sent the National Guard in to keep them out; President Eisenhower sent federal troops to escort them in.

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commitee

1960 - 1967

Young black voters active in the civil rights movement who eventually became violent and were known as the "shock troops of revolution."

Greensboro 4

February 1, 1960 - July 25, 1960

The “Greensboro Four,” the four young black men who staged the first sit-ins in Greensboro—Ezell Blair Jr. (now known as Jibreel Khazan), David Richmond, Franklin McCain, and Joseph McNeil—were students at North Carolina and Agricultural and Technical College.

Affirmative Action

1961 - Present

Also known as the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights.

Freedom Riders

May 4, 1961 - May, 1961

Thirteen African American and white civil rights activists rode buses through the American South protesting segregation in interstate bus terminals.

MLK arrest in Birmingham, Al

April 12, 1963

Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested for leading a civil rights demonstration.

March on Washington

August 28, 1963

Martin Luther King Jr. gives his "I Have a Dream" speech.

24th Amendment

1964

This amendment prohibited use of the poll tax to deny people voting privilege.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

July 2, 1964

It opened public accommadations to African Americans.

Malcom X Assassination

February 21, 1965

Malcolm X was assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan.

Black Panthers

1966 - Present

An African American revolutionary party founded in 1966.

Loving v. Virginia

June 12, 1967

An interracial couple who were jailed for unlawful cohabitation after marrying in Washington, D.C. and then returning to Virginia.

Civil Rights Act of 1968

April, 1968

It prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, and sex.

MLK Assassination

April 4, 1968

He was assassinated by James Earl Ray in Memphis, Tennessee.

Voting Rights of 1985

1985

It contained provisions guaranteeing the right to register and vote to those with limited English proficiency.

Race Riots in Los Angeles

April 29, 1992 - May, 1992

Riots caused by the beating of black motorist Rodney King by four white Los Angeles policemen.

Rosa Parks death

October 24, 2005

She died at 94 years old.