The Revolution


The Enlightenment/Age of Reasoning

1670 - 1700

John Locke, Newton, Copernicus
People's idea's of their presence shifts
they start questioning stuff around them SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS
want to apply this to religion and government

Enlightenment: applying reason to society/religion

Deism: rational approach to the nature of god
world is like a "watchmaker" created by some intelligent being
Universe was created, man can find fulfillment and trying to figure out how the universe was created
believe you/God can't intercede in our lives
usually the upper class elite
Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin

everyone was much less religious

1690 - 1720

The Great Awakening

1720 - 1750

religion was going on
much more emotional
Christian sects were created
Protestant movement
Started in England w/ traveling preachers
George Whitfield --> minister of Methodism
thought that the church of England wasn't devout enough
believed in charity, helping the poor
he starts giving sermons on the east coast
local ministers didn't let him
started preaching in the fields, on horses, in trees

Georgia failing because the people


Ben Franklin says to not build it (church) in Georgia but Whitfield says he is going to so Franklin says he isn't going to help

Franklin goes to his sermon and his speaking was so amazing that he gave him all the money he had with him

Whitfield is preaching that everyone needs to be saved
says that slaves have sounds and need to preach the bible
It breaks up classes in society
had to pay for seats in church

Johnathan Edwards


"sinners in the hands of an angry god"
he was a congregationalist, but uses methodist style sermons
Fire and brimstone type of sermons --> makes you feel it

Washington tries to talk to French


George Washington commissioned to meet w/ French and travels to Ft. LaBoeuf to speak with French and returns to Virginia
tried to talk to him and they send him away
rumors start spreading that the French are going to attack the Ohio Valley

Ben Franklin @ Albany Congress


Because everyone was there, Franklin comes up with an idea
Plan of Union:
Intercolonial government and system of recruiting troops and collecting taxes for comment defense
colonies say no b/c they want to be able to control their own taxes
Even though it failed it led to revolutionary war

Albany Congress


Representatives from MA, RI, CT, NH, NY, MD, and PA go to NY to meet w/ Indians (six nation Iroquois) and talk about the problem and to make alliances
Indians said that Covenant Chain treaty was declared broken b/c NY stole land so Iroquois said No Way!

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

Britain vs France --> Indians on both sides
Ohio River Valley --> location of beginning

British make allies with Iroquois & others
French had many more allies b/c British were seen as threats

Washington marches to watch the French

April, 1754

Washington marches 159 men to watch the French
They find a French camp and start a war and kill 14 French men including their commander
Washington builds Fort Necessity to prepare for war

Washington defeated

July 3, 1754

French and Indian come and attack Washington
Washington had to surrender and gets captured
he is let go and goes back to Virginia defeated

General Braddock sent to Virginia


Major General Braddock is sent to Virginia w/ 200 British regulars to take French fort Duquesne
They get ambushed, Braddock gets killed and Washington orders everyone back and is a hero
French Indians ambush the British settlement

British --> New Orleans


British kick all the French out of Acadia and go to New Orleans

War is declared


War is formally declared between Great Britain and France (first global war)
British: Earl of Loudoun French: Marquis de Montcalm
Both sides had allies
British: Iroquois French: Ohio Indians

Ft. Oswego Captured by French


William Pitt becomes Foreign Minister


He understood colonial concerns
offered compromise
colonial loyalty and military cooperation
Great Britain would pay
Lord Loudon is removed
very good for everyone

Fort William Henry Captured


French: Massacre of British by Indians allies

Tide turns for England

1758 - 1761

tide turns for England
re-name it Pittsburgh (Fort Pitt)
Britain and France can't come up w/ a peace treaty

Post War

1760 - 1769

Industrial Revolution in England
so we are buying most things from them but they cut off trade

Spain joins the war- dumb move on french part

1761 - 1763

fighting on islands and caribbean
Britain capture Cuba, India, Philippines

Re-thinking their empire


British want to stop smuggling
new laws: customs
Writ of assistance --> search warrant (broad)
John Hancock richest guy in colonies b/c of smuggling
Have vice-admiralty: courts for smugglings b/c the judges were appointed by the king
James Otis case: protection of a citizen's private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statue
He lost --> parliamentary law and custom had equal weight

Proclamation of 1763


no colonists are allowed to go past this (Ohio river valley) without permission from the crown
the colonists get mad b/c they want the cheap land
Indians are happy b/c they get the land

Treaty of Paris


France: lost all possessions in North America, India, Canada, and gained Sugar Islands
Spain: got all French lands west of Mississippi, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England
England: got all French lands in Canada, everything east of the Mississippi, Florida, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, India

Pontiac's Rebellion


British post-war policy was to treat Native American tribes as conquered people
cut back on gifts
did not give gunpowder
14 different tribes attacked 8 British forts near Great Lakes
General Jeffery Amherst suggested they send the Indians blankets infested w/ small pox (outside Fort Pitt)
up to 400,000-500,000 Native Americans died of small pox in the years following the war
*don't know if they were sent or not

Pakstan boys attack Indians


The Pakistan boys were from Harrisburg and they attacked the Conestoga Indians
The boys then marched to Philadelphia
Ben Franklin comes out and stops them and says that he will bring their points to government

George Grenville's Program

1764 - 1765
  1. 1764: Sugar Act (French Sugar)
    external tax: deals w/ outside colonies

  2. 1764: Currency Act
    said the colonies could not print paper money

  3. 1765: Quartering Acts
    british troops are going to be in the colonies to protect them, but the colonies had to pay for it. sent to the city's and not to the Indians
    b/c britian is more nervous about colonies staying in order and to pay taxes

  4. 1765: Stamp Act
    first internal tax: much more official
    anything legit, legal, newspaper had to have paper w/ stamps otherwise it wasn't legal
    (this angered a lot of people)

Stamp Act Repealed


Declaratory Act
they declared that they could pass any law over the colonies

Townshend Revenue Acts


They put taxes on things that the colonists needed from England b/c they didn't make them in colony's
payed for salaries

Tax on Tea/patriot anger


Boston Massacre

March 5, 1770

British troops get into a fight w/ Bostonians

Committees of correspondence (s.o.l)


a system of communication between leaders in new England and throughout the colonies. it provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies opposition to Parliament

customs search of boats off of RI (harsh)
lead up to revolution

Boston Tea Party

December 16, 1773

b/c navigation tea act -- reduce tariff, but you can only buy tea from East India company

ship tariffs/ship directly to sources
-cut out colonists (no importers)
colonists say they won't let them upload tea

sep. 16: S.O.L dump tea into Boston harbor (342)

Coercive acts


las major laws: stamp/town
1. Boston port is closed till $ is returned from tea
2. mass. gov act --> colonial legislature shut down indef.
3. admin of justice -- british official accused in colonies tried in Nova Scotia or Britain
4. new quartering - more troops coming in, Boston needs to quarter or land seized for quartering
5. quebec act: french catholics can't make own laws
a. quebec organized as province w/ only royal gov
b. could practice catholicism openly (N.E. protestant)
c. ohio/indiana/michigan = part of quebec

Continental Congress


is created in Philadelphia
declaration of rights/grievances

The Northern Campaign ***

1775 - 1776

Failed to capture Quebec, attempt to get them to join
King ignores Olive Branch Petition when learning about Bunker Hill

Thomas Paine’s Common Sense Pamphlet
Writes in common language the ideas of the enlightenment
Makes strong arguments as to why the colonies must gain independence now
Convinces many undecided people to support independence

March 1776: Sends Henry Knox to get cannon from Ft. Ticonderoga
He brings them to Dorchester Heights and face them at the Boston Harbor
Causes British to evacuate Boston, head to Nova Scotia

Britain's goal in the campaign was to isolate New England because they were so politically powerful and without them the country wouldn't be as strong

First Set of Battles ****


April 1775: British learn that Patriots have been training minutemen and have stockpiles of weapons
Battle of Lexington and Concord= “shot heard round the world”
Patriots win w/ help of militiamen and send British back to Boston
1st Continental Congress sends letter to parliament= Olive Branch Petition???/

May 1775: 2nd continental congress
N.E. wants support in war, other colonies want peace
British seize Fort Ticonderoga in upstate NY

June 17, 1775: In Boston, British try to capture Bunker Hill
Bombarding by boat w/cannons
Want high ground in boston
Washington is put in charge of the Continental Army
Bunker Hill= British Victory, gained hill, Putic victory (40% casualties)

British in Boston


next spring, British are occupying Boston
militia outside of Boston (minutemen)
Gage army up to capture weapons at armory --> concord
lexington and corned militia mobilized
chased back to Boston

Philadelphia Meeting

May, 1775

Franklin was a moderate
Rutledge - loyalty to NY
Dickinson -- colonies can't go to war b/c boston
south/cities -- loyalists, no war yet
N.E. -- already in rebellion
Jefferson/Washington -- VA
Adams -- time for negotiation passed (natural rights)
macaroni -- menu of mens, tours of Europe, new style

NY and PA


British decide to take over NYC, try to isolate NE
Washington tires to protect NYC, but ends up evacuating to Manhattan, then Harlem, then NJ
September 1776: Low point for the continental army
GW plans sneak attack before January 1st to keep troops

Washington crosses the Delaware River ***

December 25, 1776 - December 26, 1776

Battle of Trenton ***

December 26, 1776

Washington crosses the Delaware and lands North of Trenton
They walk to Trenton and there's a bread battle against the Hessian soldiers and America captures most of the Hessian soldiers and barely any Americas die

Battle of the Clouds

Sept. 16, 1777

everyone is lined up in Malvern PA, but then it downpours so they decide to "cancel" the battle and he retreats beyond the Sckyull

The Paoli Massacre

Sept. 21, 1777

400 continental troops are killed by bayonet
Howe crossed the Schykull and capture Philadelphia --> Sept 24, 1777

Saratoga ***

October 13, 1777

Gentleman Jonny Bargone is leading his North British General Bourgogne surrenders to General Gates on October 13, 1777

Winter at Valley Forge ****

December 1777 - June 1778

really hard winter
men were sick and hungry
Washington had to write to each state to ask for supplies
Baren Von Stuben --> French/German who comes and reforms and trains the army

Manmoth Battle

June 26, 1778


Oct 9 1779

captured by the British

African American churchs are created

1780 - 1789

America almost bankrupt


congress needed to keep army until 1783 b/c treaty wasn't formed until then
so they were still paying the army for no reason

Southern Strategy ****

1780 - 1781

British are starting to loose patience
They decide to focus on the south
more loyalists


January 17, 1780

U.S. victory


May 12, 1780

captured by the British

Kings Mountain

October 7, 1780

U.S. victory

Battle of Yorktown ****


French and British are marching down and trap the British

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union

1781 - 1789

each state had delegate and equal vote
very weak
could only
wage wars
borrow money
unicameral - one house
no power to tax individual states

this was a failed system of government
lots of debt but couldn't raise taxes so no way to pay back

New Republic is forming
states were more concerned about state constitution

John Adams writes "Thoughts on Government:
mixed government --> bicameral (senate, house of reps)
PA had a unicameral house

Treaty of Paris


French lost out the most in the treaty
Britain officially acknowledges the U.S.
British and U.S. gain lands
U.S. supposed to give loyalists land back but they don't so, 300,000 leave and go to other countries
Spain holds on to land
U.S. gets access to Mississippi

Newburgh Conspiracy


officers wanted to seize land Ohio Valley and start their own country b/c they weren't being paid by Congress
They wanted Washington to be their leader, when he finds out about the plan he talked to his officers and said how could you?!?!
They see him going blind and haggard and they feel bad for him

West of Appalachians belong to U.S.

1784 - 1785

squatters come through
whose land is it? congress says no way to them
(group of swatters in Tennessee say the land is their own and Franklin and congress says NO)

Ordinance of 1784


in oder for a territory to declare own government and become state it had to have a population the size of the smallest state (Rhode Island, 60,000)

Ordinance of 1785


belongs to congress, not squatters
creates grid system to split the land up
minimum price $1/acre

Annapolis Convention

September 1786

talking about: debt, tariffs between states
only 5 states there, so they can't make any big changes

Hamilton and Madison meet
both nationalists
Hamilton was Washington's right hand man
They get everyone to come to the Constitutional convention in May in Philadelphia

Madison goes home and studies other governments and comes up with his own: The Virginia Plan
Madison needs someone on his side so he goes to Washington and convinces him to go

North West Ordinance of 1787


going to divide into 5 new territories
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin
congress gives them a governor
not going to allow slaves North of Ohio river
money was used to create schools for agriculture and science

Shay's Rebellion


Daniel Shays comes and rallies the farmers whose land was taken
they shut down the courts and say the government is acting like Britain

Gov. of Massachusetts declares Riot Act that says people can't gather in large groups. He organizes a militia and asks for Ny and CT to send militia and they say no

The national government militia comes na shuts down Shays Rebellion

Constitutional Convention

May, 1787

Madison's plan take over the convention:
The Virginia Plan:
Three Branches of Government
1. Legislative --> bicameral (senate [upper class] and house of rep [the people])
2. Executive --> veto over congressional laws
3. Judicial --> separate court system

smaller states did not like this b/c it was based on how big/small your population is

William Patterson (NJ)
New Jersey Plan:
-tax the states
-regulate trade
-equal rep. by state
-unicameral house
-very similar to A. of C.

Roger Sherman (Connecticut)
Great Compromise:
(combined 2 plans)

3 branches:
checks and balances

1. 4 year term
2. elected indefinitely
3. electoral college
4. top 2 men

1. bicameral: senate/ house of rep
2. 6 year terms
3. 2 senators (each state)
4. create national laws
bills that come from other two
5. taxes

1. court system

to get the south to agree they said slaves would equal 3/5 of a person and that slave trade will end in 20 years (by 1807 no more imports)
the south said they couldn't talk about slavery in congress b/c south had so much power b/c so many slaves

fugitive slave act: a slave that escapes to another state, the owner can go get the slave

congress creates laws that all states have to follow
Ex: national law --> pot is illegal but colorado's state law says it's legal and president is deciding not to enforce it

Constitution is finished

September 1787

the constitution is finished and now going to discuss ratification
only need 9/13 acceptance
to convince voters (VA & NY) they wrote the Federalist papers
Written by John Jay, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton --> called "rublius"
federalists --> stronger national government (balance of power)

Wealthier farmers
anti-federalists --> weaker government
wanted a Bill of Rights (written by Madison)

Westward Expansion

1790 - 1799

1790s- the U.S. attempted to expand its territory westward.
three new states admitted to the union: Vermont (1791), Kentucky (1792), and Tennessee (1796)

Such expansion efforts incited opposition from Spain and Britain, both of which still owned some western territory and wanted to own more.
Native Americans who inhabited much of this coveted land also resisted U.S. expansion.

Military efforts in 1790 and 1791, aimed at forcing peace with the Native Americans on U.S. terms, yielded little success.
1794- U.S. troops routed a group of Native American warriors at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the final battle of the Northwest Indian War (1785-1795)

General “Mad” Anthony Wayne commanded new 3000 man “Legion of the United States” vs. Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and Delaware Chief Buckongahelas’ and Miami Chief “Little Turtle” “Western Confederacy.” Indians supplied by British Fort Miami (near Toledo, OH, on American soil)

After this defeat, 12 Native American tribes signed the Treaty of Greenville (1795), which cleared the Ohio territory of tribes and opened it up to U.S. settlement. Wayne creates a series of American forts in the Northwest. Settlers come into the territory and Ohio is a state by 1803.

Bill of Rights Written


Madison first said they don't need a Bill of Rights b/c states have laws
but he's wrong and he writes the Bill of Rights
protection of the people
1. national government can't make national religion, freedom of speech, freedom of print
2. states can have own militia/ can bear arms
3. no solider can quarter your house
4 - 9: rights of arrest against government
10. whatever is not said to belong to national government belongs to state government

Hamilton's Financial Plan


new national government would assume all the debts of the states
{debt to foreigners: 11.7 million, state war debt assumed: 21.5 million, national war debt: 42.4 million = 75.6 million}
some states were paying and some weren't
Jefferson and Madison say no way, then you get all the power
Hamilton and Madison (speaker) speak in secret and they trade capital (DC) in return for Madison getting votes for Hamilton's plan

Hamilton says we are going to pay back in full $ b/c other wise they would have bad credit
Madison gets mad b/c it isn't fair b/c people sold their debt cards to bankers so the bankers get paid and the poor people don't
Congress heard about this and bought all the debt, so they get paid
The government doesn't have all the money so they give out bonds with 6% interest and will pay back over many years
you can also buy a treasury bond
every year 4.6 million is added to national debt
he wanted the wealthy to buy the bonds b/c now they have a personal $ connection to America

money going in to the bank from taxes, tariffs and land sales
money is also being lent out to states and private owners
Jefferson and Madison say it's unconstitutional to have a national bank, they say it's up to the states
Hamilton is crafty and takes from Article 1, Section 8 and says that everything it says about money sounds like what a bank would do
Congress has the right to create things to help carry out the laws
"elastic clause" --> very loose interpretation
5.6 million coming in, 1.2 million from taxing Whiskey

Citizen Genet


Although neutrality was the national policy, Southwestern settlers offered some military support to the French against the Spanish in Florida and in the Mississippi Valley, and 1,000 Americans enlisted with the French as privateers, terrorizing the British navy.

1793- Sect. of War Henry Knox advised Washington on how to deal with British ships captured at sea and refitted as French ships in American harbors.

Genet had been sent by the French to gather support for the French regime in their war with Britain. Jefferson supported Genet. Washington to Genet- stop gathering support from Americans, stop encouraging Americans to attack Spanish Florida. Washington demanded Genets recall (but King Louis XVI had been executed, so Genet was no longer in favor, so he settled down in America).

The British navy retaliated by seizing more than 250 American vessels during the winter of 1794, forcing their crews into service in the Royal Navy through a policy known as “impressment.” Tension flared further when Canada’s royal governor denied U.S. claims to the land north of the Ohio River and encouraged the Native Americans in the region to resist expansion (Northwest War, above). War seemed almost inevitable as the British and Spanish troops began building forts on U.S. territory.

Proclamation of Neutrality


Washington worked to preserve U.S. neutrality in international relations. By keeping the U.S. out of European conflicts, he hoped to develop and enhance U.S. domestic policy and unite the nation under one strong, efficient government.
Foreign affairs, however, grew increasingly difficult to ignore. The French Revolution (1789-1799) inspired opposing loyalties within the federal government. Jefferson and other Republicans sympathized with the revolutionary cause, which championed individual rights against the aristocratic government. Hamilton and other Federalists opposed it.

In 1793, when revolutionary France went to war with Britain and Spain, U.S. loyalties were again divided.

Northern merchants pressed for a pro-British policy, mostly because of trade interests, while Southern planters pushed for an alliance with France.

Refusing to be drawn into the war, Washington issued the Proclamation of American Neutrality.

Jay's Treaty


Desperate to avoid war, Washington dispatched negotiators to the warring European nations. John Jay negotiated Jay’s Treaty (1795) with Britain, which secured the removal of British troops from American land and reopened very limited trade with the British West Indies, but he did not address the British seizure of American ships or the “impressment” of American sailors. Although criticized by many Americans, especially Anti-federalists, for being too beneficial to Britain, Jay’s Treaty did keep the U.S. out of a potentially ruinous war against a stronger and more established nation.

Whiskey Rebellion

July, 1794

first major test of the national government’s ability to enforce its laws within the states

whiskey distillers refuse to pay excise tax; say benefit larger commercial interests; tar and feather tax collectors; refusal to follow a federal law; talk of French Revolution and bringing the guillotine to America.

500 farmers attack home of US Marshall sent to serve writs to distillers who had not paid excise (3 killed)

Washington raised army of 13,000 militia members. Hamilton leads it to Western PA. Rebels scatter and 20 arrested, but later acquitted or pardoned.

Revealed the new government’s strength; farmers shift loyalty to Dem-Republicans. Two parties further divided.

Washington Steps down


In 1796, Washington retired from office, deciding not to run for a third term. He thereby set the precedent of presidents serving no more than two terms in office—a precedent that became law with the ratification of the Twenty-Second Amendment (1951). In his farewell address, Washington implored future generations to avoid embroilment in the affairs of other nations, and to concentrate on the creation of “efficient government” at home. He warned that the development of parties would destroy the government, fearing that special interest groups and foreign nations would come to dominate the two factions.

Election of 1796


-First election with political parties
-Republicans controlled the South, Federalists New England, New Jersey and South Carolina
-Pres – John Adams (Federalist)
-VP – Thomas Jefferson (D.R.)
-Aaron Burr (DR)