The Roman Catholic Church became increasingly involved in secular society during the Middle Ages (A.D. c. 450–c. 1500). It played a significant role in medieval European life through the activities of the clergy. Missionaries converted many of the Germanic tribes, and the church was influential in civilizing the so-called barbarians. Churches throughout Europe housed travelers and served as hospitals for the sick, while monasteries and cathedrals became centers of learning.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1500 and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context
a theory that a general council of the church has greater authority than the pope and may, if necessary, depose him.
Unum Sanctum lays down dogmatic propositions on the unity of the Catholic Church, the necessity of belonging to it for eternal salvation, the position of the pope as supreme head of the Church, and the duty thence arising of submission to the pope in order to belong to the Church and thus to attain salvation.
Following the strife between Philip IV of France and Pope Boniface VIII and the death of his successor Benedict XI after only eight months in office, a deadlocked conclave finally elected Clement V, a Frenchman, as Pope in 1305. Clement declined to move to Rome, remaining in France, and in 1309, he moved his court to the papal enclave at Avignon, where it remained for the next 67 years, allowing seven successive popes to rule from France.
He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His long reign of fifty years was the second longest in medieval England and saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament
A series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet against the House of Valois for control of the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe.
One of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–1353. It first started in southwestern Europe and spread throughout the entire contitent.
a collection of novellas by the 14th-century Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio. The book is structured as a frame story containing 100 tales told by a group of seven young women and three young men sheltering in a secluded villa just outside Florence to escape the Black Death, which was afflicting the city.
A popular revolt by peasants that took place in northern France in the early summer of 1358 during the Hundred Years' War. The revolt was centered in the valley of the Oise north of Paris and was suppressed after a few weeks of violence.
He was a Czech priest, philosopher, and an early Christian reformer. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformist Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Catholic Church.
He was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, and reformer. He was an influential dissident within the Roman Catholic priesthood during the 14th century.
Wycliffe attacked the privileged status of the clergy, which was central to their powerful role in England. He then attacked the luxury and pomp of local parishes and their ceremonies.
She is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. Joan said she received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination. King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief mission and ultimately lead to the overall boost in morale of the French.