Egyptian Middle Kingdom

2055 BCE - 1650 BCE

Indo-Europeans arrive in Anatolia and Greece

2000 BCE

Minoan Palatial Periods (Crete)

1900 BCE - 1400 BCE

Egyptian Second Intermediate Period

1650 BCE - 1550 BCE

Hittite Era (Anatolia)

1600 BCE - 1178 BCE

Egyptian New Kingdom

1550 BCE - 1069 BCE

Neo-Assyrian Empire

1350 BCE - 612 BCE

fought often with HIttites
own cuneiform (sematic language)
Ashur- primary god (of war)- close relation with the king
warrior society
professional standing army
calvary and moubted archers
seige welfare (dig under city walls so they collapse)
terror and submission

early isrealite kings:
-Saul: conflict with David over slaves
David: conquered Jeursalem
Solomon: building of the great temple (division of land between the N kingdom of isreal and south)

egypt, syria, babalonia

king granted control, maintain natural balance
fighting and hunting (like Meso.)
expanding territory of Ashur

regional governors
deportation and assimilation
vassal states
messenger and road service

aramaic- international language of near east
Ashurbanipal's Library at Ninevah

resentment of conquered people
rebellion of multiple people; cities destroyed
-sacked by babylonians (Naboplassar)

Greek "Dark Age"

1150 BCE - 800 BCE

Western Zhou

1046 BCE - 221 BCE

Zhou Dynasty

1046 BC - 221 BC

King Wu
- capital: Haojing
- Mandate of Heaven
Shang POV of Zhou- barbaric
King Wu destined to take the throne (Man. of Heaven)

brother: Duke of Zhou (capital: Luoyang)
Zhou control over Yellow River

trained nephew (son of Wu) who took the throne (good advisor and administrator

similiar to Shang
soft state- depended on feudal relationship between ruler and surrounding territories

shifted capital (Hao to Luo)
increase in power of frontier states

fragmentation and independence of frontier
increasing competition and borders

Zhou dynasty split in 8 regions
constant fighting and warfare

violent time
philosophy on art of welfare (deception)
requirements for successful general

calvary (battle on different terrains)
peasant conscription v early aristocratic warfare

forced to join army by local rule (larger armies)
city walls and seize welfare
catapults, ballista, territorial boundary walls, seige towers

conflict and ideas
intellectual movement due to intense conflict

Daoism (taoism)- naturalistic philosophy

coming into harmony with the natural world/nature
ying and yang
Legalism- political philosophy
people are lazy/ bad, need law to guide them, system requires highly trained administrators and generals
from Shang Yang (Quin dynasty) and Han Feizi
legal ideals with reward system
social outcomes: attack on aristocratic privilege, state over fam, local ties, increase on education and training, system self sustaining while king maintains aura of authority

Velic India

1000 BCE - 500 BCE

state formation
reemergence of civilization
expansion into Ganges plain
development of iron
Janapada- kindgoms
professional armies
writing reappears (Sanscript language)
early Hindu emerging- Upanishads
NOTE: [6th c BCE] 600 BCE to 501 BCE (approx.) rise of Buddahism (counter to Hinduism)

Archaic Period

800 BCE - 500 BCE

//Rise of Polis (800-850 BCE)//
greeks declining as power
new writing, increase in agriculture
law codes and constitutions (law codes of Dreros)
oligarchy; rule by elites
tyranny; rule by single person, often by support of commoners

shared language
religious pantheon
frequent seasonal fighting bw city states
Pan-Hellenic religious festivals and games
regional identities

Professional Army created

Approx. 800 BCE - Approx. 701 BCE

created by Tiglath-Pileser 3

Eastern Zhou

770 BCE - 256 BCE

Roman Monarchy

753 BC - 509 BC

7 kings (3 Etruscians)
military, judicial and legislative authority
infrastructure and institutions -sewage, city walls, census
chief preist (PONTIFEX MAXIMUS)

patria potestas- power of the father; has power over wife and children
mos maiorum- ancestral custom; recognition of ancestors- carrying on the traditions
Romanitas- manliness; religious piety, seriousness, strength

Sextus Tarquinius
-son of Etruscian king, fought with Roman elite over whose wife is more virtuous. Lucretia asks L Junis Brutis to kill Sextus, then kills self.

Spring and Autumn Period

722 BC - 476 BC

Neo-Babylonian Empire

612 BCE - 539 BCE

Nebuchadnezzar 2
- reclaiming Mesopotamian past
- glorifying Babylon

High priest- building of Ur
expanding opulation
Ishtar Gate (depiction of animals)
hanging gardens

Neb 2 and conquest of Judah
loss of great temple of Jeurasalem
- majority of population had to move to Babylon
- messiah "the savior"

Babylonian Captivity of the Jews

586 BCE - 539 BCE

Neb 2 and conquest of Judah
loss of great temple of Jeurasalem
- majority of population had to move to Babylon
- messiah "the savior"


551 bce - 479 bce

King Fuzi "master Kong"
political model: Duke of Zhou
political teacher and career

what a ruler should be; in search for a great leader
ritual and custom
lack of interest in spirits and gods

Achaemenid Persian Empire

539 BCE - 330 BCE

initially fell under assryian Empire
capital Ecbatana
- persians and Medes inhabited (Medes- indo euro that were closely related to the persians)

emergence of persian power
related to Medes
uprising against Medes (his own grandpa)
multiethnic empire
lydians: first coins

Judeo-christian tradition
model for later leaders

Cambyses 2 and conquest of Egypt
- Cyrus's son, religious persecution

Cambyses 2, Darius 1, Xerxes 1

- Ahura MAzda and Ahriman (good v bad)

traveling capitals
regional governors- Satrapy
Royal road and postal system
conscript army (called upon regional armies from of the all empire)
airmedes (spelling??)- administrative language

Roman Republic

509 BCE - 30 BCE

Res privata- private thing
Res publica- public thing
division of powers
- 2 consuls (annually)
- 100-300 Senate- foreign affairs
- popular assemblies- voting people into office and deciding if going to war

patricians; elites
plebeians; commoners
plebeians leave city- going on strike
12 tables
licino sextian law
plebeian office of Tribune
plebescites and Hortensian law

Classical Period

500 BCE - 323 BCE

Hellenic period
Sparta and Athens

decendents of Dorian people
territorial conquests- Messenian War
-invaded Messenians
-helots (Former Messenians, Spartan slaves)
-Lycurgus and the Spartan Great Rhetra ( proclamation of the Spartan political constitution)

closed to outsiders
Dual monarchy (generousia- council of elders) and Spartiate Assembly (Ephors)
agoge- military education system
closed military society due to fear of helot uprising
part of Peloponnesian League (Sparta and allies in Peloponnese region)

open to outsiders
port city
Dracos Law code
-reformed in 594 BCE

abolished debt slavery and established assembly
foundation for democracy

peisistratid tyranny (562-510 BCE)
-pirates, estab festivals for Athenian identity
Cleistenes' reforms
-aristocrat; rise out of true democracy in Athens
- breaking traditional Athenian grouping; lower class can partake in elite assembly
preventing tyranny: ostracism (banish for 10 yrs)
popular democracy: everyone has equal voice

Greco Persian Wars

499 BCE - 493 BCE

Xerxies 1 convinced Persians to go on expidition- failed
tyrant wanted to stay in power- Ionian Revolt (Greek Ionia)
Athenian support and failure

Daruis 1 and Athens
city states v conscript army
Battle of Marathon
Athenian- allies (inc Spartans)

Xerxes 1 expedition
Thermopylae (Spartan Sacrifice)
Athenian Sacrifice
Battle of Salamis (479 BCE)
Battle of Plataea (479 BCE)

First Persian Invasion (Battle of Marathon)

490 BCE

part of Greco Persian War

Second Persian Invasion

480 BCE - 479 BCE

part of Greco Persian War

Warring States Period

476 BCE - 221 BCE

XII (12) Tables

450 BCE

Rome codified laws and posted them publicly

Peloponnesian War

431 BCE - 404 BCE

30 yr war between Athens and Sparta
Spartan allies; Peloponnesians, persians
Athenian allies: Greek Ionia
Sparta beats Athens in 404 BCE; made Athens tear down walls.

Corcyran Civil War

427 BCE

city: Epidamnus
Corcyra allies with Athens, Corinth allies with Sparta.

Athens and Sparta at war

Cyrus the younger's Revolt

401 BCE

Xenophon and the 10,000
Cyrus leads army of mercenaries into battle against brother, Xenophon.
- Cyrus dies in battle; mercenaries stuck in brothers territory- escaped

Trial of Socrates

399 BCE - 398 BCE

Socrates put on trial for the corruption of the youth

Gauls sack Rome

390 BCE

Rise of Gauls
- defensive aggression vs aristocratic ambition= territorial conquest

military colonies, Roman footprint to introduce and integrate conquered places
citizenship to local elites
recognizing some rights

Licino-Sextian Law

367 BCE

One consul must be plebeian

Reign of King Phillip 2 of Macedon

359 BCE - 336 BCE

Macedonians- (Greek POV- backwards) dialect of Greek
-partiers and alcoholics
kingdom/ monarchy
takes throne in 360 BCE after taking throne from nephew
polygamy (marriages and alliances)
military innovator (sarissa- new spear)

companion calvary (nobles/royals)
hammer and anvil

Battle of Chaeronea

338 BCE

Greek states fall under Macedonian control

Reign of Alexander 3 of Macedon

336 BCE - 323 BCE

Alexander "the great"
- son of Olympias (mom) and Phillip 2 (dad)

mom- avid worshipper of Dionysus and princess of Epirus
- sided with mom (mamas boy)
- competed with dads successes for glory and honor
- tutored by Aristotle
ideal state v ideal rule
pambasileus- ones virtue/ excellence so superior justification for kingship, not democracy or oligarchy.

traveling and conquest of land

Hellenization- adoption of Greek cultural traditions by non-greeks

divided empire- helleistic empire
no heir
divine monarchy
greek rulers adopting native ruling traditions (hellenization)

Hellenistic Period

323 BCE - 30 BCE

helllenization: adopting the greek culture in non greek cultures by nature

inheritors of Achaemenid persians
persian marriage
satrapy system (regional governors (??))
religious tolerance EXCEPT TO MACCABEES!
Aramaic- local language
local admin.

agriculturally fertile region
multiple rivers
capital: Ai Khanoum
- exceptionally Greek
- propyae
- traditional Greek education
- Delphic Maxiums
- philosophical writings of Aristotle

Mauryan Dynasty

322 BCE - 185 BCE

Chandragupta Maurya
- vacuum of Alexanders campaign

conquest of small indian kingdom along Indus River
took come of throne after Alexanders death
- established own kingdom in Magadha
- 305 BCE
treaty with Seleucus 1; sel. had to give up land
Kautilya- strategist

Ashoka (grandson of Chandragupta)
- change of religion due to conquest
- converted to buddhism
- fall of empire

Plebeian office of Tribune

300 BCE

veto power

Plebeian and Hortensian Law

287 BCE

Plebeians have legislative power over Senate

Octavian and the Principate

284 BCE - 30 BCE

name change: Octavian to Augustus ("illustrious one")
titles undercover for emperor
- princeps senatus: first man of senate; puts forward own legislation, opinion
- princeps ciritatis: first citizen
- Tribune for Life: ability to hold veto power and run agenda for Senate
division of providences (bt self and senate)
established Roman military colonies

roman footprint- Romanization
control of grain supply (good will of the poor)
pater patriae- father
pontifex maximus- chief priest
reestablishment of Roman power abroad

Italy under Roman control

268 BCE

Punic Wars

264 BC - 146 BC

fighting: Antigonids, Selekids and Ptolemies
established Rome as Mediterranean power
not continual (3 wars)
Rome- successful conquest of southern greek city states
conflict: between Selecuids and Greeks
- seleukids call on allies to boot mercinaries out
- occurs on Sicily
romans built ships; planked on other ships (Carthegian ships)
conquered Sicily and other places by end of war

Liu Bang (Han Dynasty)

256 BCE - 195 BCE

peasant king
low administrative office

in charge of group of convicts to make tomb of aug emp.
convicts escaped, made army
became emperor of Han Dynasty

confucian in appearance, legalistic in reality
Han synthesis- combo of two idealologies; legalism, daoism, confucianism

confucian elements

Mandate of HEaven
Qin laws relaxed
ritual, palaces, tombs (ancestral worship)
legalistic elements
penalties still harsh
exalted emperor
bureaucracy and meritocracy (imperial academy)

imperial academy

train future admin
founded b Han Wudi
confucius curriculum
paper developed!!
graduates- scholar gentry
state confucianism
ethics and legalistic effectiveness

expansionist ideologies

nomadic people
frequent contact with Han
Treaty of Gaozu

lost 1st significant battle that lead to peaceful treaty

founder of imperial academy
established professional army to beat Xiongnu
increased taxes

outside calgary
first control over central Asia
silk road

frontier defenses
territorial divisions
agricultural ideology
agricultural military colonies
imperial road system

Wang Mang

related to royal fam
claims right to rule (Mand of Heaven)
begins rebellion
creates support (legitamacy)
Yellow river shifts course (AHHHH NO)

military changes
peasant dissatisifaction
lower class revolts
Daoist faith and millenarianism
fall of Han

Quin Shi Haungdi (Qin Dynasty)

247 BCE - 210 BCE

name change: "August Emperor"
territorial expansion
conquered major Chinese states by 221 BCE

unified china
expanded legalistic structure
providences; 48 commanderies
- civil commander: day to day official
- military commander
feudalism abolished
unified writing and universal coinage

roads, canals, walls connected
taxation and corvee labor
forced peasants and convicts to work
taxed for infrastructure

burned books

reshape memory of past, especially older dynasty

terra cotta warriors
next life reestablished whats in this life

aristocracy abolished: angry aristocracy
corvee labor: angry peasants
son of August Emperor

inept, killed self

centralized, beucratic, autocratic (legalistic) rule

Rise of Qin Dynasty

221 BCE - 206 BCE

rise due to Warring states period
legalistic structure
abolishment of aristocracy
land of aristocrats spread amongst poor
increase militarization

Second Punic War

218 BCE - 202 BCE

conflict in Spain; Romans and Carthage over treaty
violation of treaty in Iberia
- Hannibal leads army to Italian Penninsula
-Romans won
roman general; Scipio Africanus
Cardige general: Hannibal

Fall of Carthage to Rome

146 BCE

End of Punic Wars
Rome- Mediterrian power, Iberian Peninsula, Greece

Agrarian reforms of Gracchi (1)

133 BCE

Late Roman Republic

133 BCE - 27 BCE

elite conflicts
-optimates; elites, old partician class and political viewpoint and actions
-populares; elites, programs for poor/pheasants
armies and generals
- don't own land, cannot to war/ be in army therefore overturned law

Agrarian reforms of Gracchi (2)

122 BCE

Civil War between Marius and Sulla

88 BCE - 87 BCE

"Rise of the Strong Man"

- took on soldiers w/o land (illegally); led to their loyalty
- took oaths of loyalty personally

- leutienent of Marius
- captured somone at Geugartha
- Marius angry at Sulla's popularity

throws Sulla out of Italy
- had soldiers march on Roman ground (sulla)

each conflict: increase loot, increase power of either Sulla or Marius

First Triumvirate

60 BCE - 53 BCE

Pompey Magnus
-supported Sulla (one of the strong men in the "rise of the strong men")
Crassus "Dives"
-black sheep
Julius Caesar
- relative to Marius

Roman Civil War

49 BCE - 44 BCE

Caesar comes from Gaul to Rome
- Senate denounces his conquest of Gaul
Pompey given senatorial charge of legion
- killed at order of Polimy the 8th

Julius Caesar assinated

44 BCE

Second Triumvirate

43 BCE - 33 BCE

Caesar's heir
Octavian (36-14 BCE); Caesar's CHOSEN heir
Marcus Lepidus
Marcus Antonius

Battle of Actium

31 BCE

Roman Empire

27 BCE - 385 CE

timeline estimate!!

roman legion; strongest unit of army

heavy infantry men
calgary; heavy brute, messengers
able to split into legions
Roman allies fighting along Roman Legion

provincial governers
language; latin

eastern half of med. greek, western half of med. latin
military colonies
client kings
edges of Roman empire
Roman Road system improved, mile marker, water supply (aqueducts, irrigation) the Baths, coinage
gladiators, the Games, naval battle mock, animal hunts
posts that protect trade routes from southern Arabia (Qasr Bshir, Jordan)
being roman on the frontier (bath houses, commander house)
religious borrowings
built by other people (Syrians)
borrowing gods/dieties from people fighting (celtic godesses)
moving people away from native lands-no political problems, integration into the empire
deportation v mobilization
property, legal property/protection, write wills
buy into Roman culture

Pax Romana

27 BCE - 180 CE

period between Julio-Claudian and end of 5 good emperors
-golden age of Roman empire
Roman Peak
- continual peace (for most part)
- no walls in Mediterranean
-concepts of world rule

Julio- Claudian Dynasty

27 BCE - 68 CE

Four rulers: Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero

Augustus' step son

1st assassinated emperor
counsel, sexual depravity, restoring republic

ok emperor

senate/elite turned against him- assassinated
sexual depravity, artist, tried killing mother and pregnant wife
no close relatives- civil war over throne (year of four emperors)

Flavian Dynasty

69 CE - 96 CE

after year of four emperors (one came out on top: Vespasian)

Three rulers: Vespasian, titus, Domitian

not related to Nero
survived civil war
colosseum in Rome

son of Vespasian

Titus's younger brother

led to reign of five good emperors

The Good Emperors and Commodus

96 CE - 192 CE

five emperors: Nerva, Trajam, Harian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius

established Roman elite
succession model- choosing established leaders to preceed you (not family)

territorial expansion

great administrator
established Trojan's frontiers

The Severan Dynasty

193 CE - 235 CE

not Roman!
after 3rd c Crisis!!

emperor (name not important) won out of year of 5 emperors
paid off army for political support
doesn't get along with the Senate
212 BCE: citizenship to all males in Roman Empire

more taxes

last emperor assassinated in 235 BCE

lots of emperors; killed in battle or assassinated
275 BCE: Aurelian walls built in Rome (WEAKNESS)
last barrak emperor: Diocletian

end of princeps (first man of Senate)
princeps-> dominus (lord and master)

no more hiding actual position behind 'misleading' name
division of power ( E and W emperors with jr. emperor)
leading men closer to frontiers

less invasions, prevention of overthrow of power

The Third Century Crisis

235 CE - 284 CE

Commodus new emperor after father (Marcus Aurealius)

not a good emperor

led to year of 5 emperors (192 BCE)

Reign of Dioletian, establishment of Tetrarchy

284 CE - 305 CE

end of princeps (first man of Senate)
princeps-> dominus (lord and master)

no more hiding actual position behind 'misleading' name
division of power ( E and W emperors with jr. emperor)- TETRARCHY
leading men closer to frontiers

less invasions, prevention of overthrow of power